Tourism Life Cycle & Doxey Irri-Dex
5 4 3 2 1 Butler's Tourist Area Life Cycle 6
5 4 3 2 1 Butler's Tourist Area Life Cycle 6 Cumulative Causation
Butler's Tourist Area Life Cycle This model suggests that there are six stages to the development of tourist area, which are: Exploration Stage: No specific facilities exist for visitors. Involvement Stage: Facilities provided primarily by locals. Few tourists. Development/discovery Stage: Rapid rise in the number of tourists. Local involvement and control declines rapidly. Growth and development is carried out by external organizations and government. Consolidation Stage: Tourist numbers begin to level off. Major franchises and chains in the tourists industry are prominent. Stagnation Stage: Growth has ceased and the tourist destination has become "established". Future Stages: possibilities exist for rejuvenation, stabilization or decline.
Doxey Irri-dex Annoyance: Irritations openly expressed Residents perceive tourists as the cause of the problems As a way of measuring local reaction to the development of tourism, Doxey created the following range of feelings that might be experienced by local residents as tourism development takes place. Antagonism: Residents misgivings about tourism Range of saturation points approached Apathy: Visitors taken for granted More formal relationships between hosts & guests Euphoria: Visitors & investors welcome
Doxey Irri-dex Why would local people feel these emotions at different stages of tourism development? Annoyance: Would all destinations and their locals feel the full range of emotions? Antagonism: Apathy: Where on the lifecycle would you expect to find each “feeling”? Euphoria: