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NEW INSECTICDES & HONEY BEE COLONY COLLAPSE Bob Bruss. Inspector Meeting October 27 – 29, 2008 NCDA &CS Steve Troxler - Commissioner. Insecticide MOA 1 º Sites. Nervous System Energy Production Muscle Contraction Endocrine System Chitin Production Gut Toxin Lipid Biosynthesis

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new insecticdes honey bee colony collapse bob bruss

NEW INSECTICDES&HONEY BEE COLONY COLLAPSEBob Bruss

Inspector Meeting

October 27 – 29, 2008

NCDA &CS

Steve Troxler - Commissioner

insecticide moa 1 sites
Insecticide MOA 1º Sites
  • Nervous System
  • Energy Production
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Endocrine System
  • Chitin Production
  • Gut Toxin
  • Lipid Biosynthesis
  • Water Balance
slide7
DuPont Crop Protection

Excitatory Neuron

Muscle

Cl- channels

Mitochondria

Ca+

stores

AChE

Na+/K+

channels

M

ACh

Glut

Na+/K+

channels

GABA

ACh

Cl- channels

M

Motor Neuron

Insect Neuromuscular Signaling Pathway

nervous system8
Nervous System
  • Pyrethrins / Pyrethroids / DDT Analogues
    • inhibits closing of Na+ channels
    • pyrethrin I & II / permethrin, cyfluthrin
    • DDT, DDE, methoxychlor
  • Oxadiazines (indoxacarb)
    • blocks Na+ channels
  • Phenyl pyrazoles(fipronil) / Cyclodienes
    • blocks GABA mediated Cl- channels
    • chlordane, heptachlor, dieldrin, endrin
new nerve poisons
New Nerve Poisons
  • Oxadiazines
    • indoxacarb only U.S. representative (DuPont)
    • Avaunt (fruit/veg), Advion (baits), Steward
    • pro-insecticide / gut-activated / slow acting
    • rapid photodegradation / mod. soil residual
  • Phenyl pyrazoles
    • fipronil only U.S. representative (BASF)
    • Regent (corn), Frontline (fleas), Termidor
    • rapid photodegradation / long soil residual
nervous system10
Nervous System
  • Chloronicotinyls / Nicotine / Spinosad
    • activates acetylcholine (ACh) receptors
    • CNI: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam
    • spinosads: spinosyn A, spinosyn B
  • Organophosphates / Carbamates
    • inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
    • carbamates much more reversible
    • parathion, diazinon / carbaryl, aldicarb
    • Solanaceae: solanine, chaconine, tomatine
nervous system11
Nervous System
  • Atropine
    • blocks acetylcholine (ACh) receptors
    • antidote for AChE poisoning
  • Macrolactones (avermectins)
    • blocks glutamate mediated Cl- channels
    • emamectin benzoate (Denim) derived from abamectin
slide12
DuPont Crop Protection

Pyrethroids

Indoxacarb

Targets Below Reflect MoA for > 90% of Commercial Insecticides

Excitatory Neuron

Muscle

Avermectins

OPs

Carbamates

Mitochondrial

Insecticides

Ca+

stores

AChE

Neonicotinoids

Spinosad

M

ACh

Glut

Na+/K+

channels

GABA

Cl- channels

M

Cyclodienes

Fipronil

Motor Neuron

Insect Neuromuscular Signaling Pathway

energy production
Energy Production
  • Pyrroles
    • chlorfenapyr only U.S. representative
    • disrupts ATP formation in mitochondria
    • pro-insecticide (bio-activated to toxin)
    • poorly activated in mammals
    • some birds sensitive (no crops – Pirate)
    • Phantom (termites/ants)
    • Pylon (greenhouse vegs & ornamentals)
    • long soil residual
muscle contraction
Muscle Contraction
  • Anthranilic diamides (DuPont)
    • chlorantraniliprole 1st U.S. representative
    • Rynaxypyr® trademark for a.i.
    • activates insect ryanodine receptors
    • Ca+ released – muscles contract
    • vertebrate receptors much less sensitive
    • rapid leaf penetration limits contact action
      • controls caterpillars & some beetle larvae
    • persistent residues but low hazard
    • Altacor (fruit), Coragen (veg), Acelepryn (T&O)
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Juvenile Hormone mimics
    • insect retains juvenile characteristics @ moult
      • fleas & biting flies
    • analogs: methoprene, hydroprene, kinoprene
    • others: fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen
  • Ecdysone agonists (moulting disruptors)
    • diacylhydrazines: tebufenozide (Confirm)
    • azadirachtin
    • slow acting
chitin production gut toxins
Chitin Production & Gut Toxins
  • Chitin biosynthesis inhibitors
    • chitin: insect exoskeleton polysaccharide
    • benzoylurea IGRs
      • diflubenzuron (Dimilin), novaluron (Rimon)
    • buprofezin (Applaud)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
    • microbial toxins disrupts midgut membrane
    • many B.t. subspecies with multiple toxic proteins
    • fermentation products (Dipel, Javelin)
    • transgenic plants
lipid synthesis inhibitors
Lipid Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Tetronic acids (ketonenols) - Bayer
    • blocks formation of lipids; systemic
    • most active against mites & sucking insects
    • spirodiclofen (Envidor)
      • fruits & nuts: spider mites & rust mites
    • spiromesifen
      • spider mites, whiteflies & psyllids
      • Oberon: field crops & vegetables
      • Judo: greenhouse & nursery; Forbid: landscapes
    • spirotetramat (Movento) – EPA cond. June 08
      • aphids, mealy bugs, whiteflies, scales
water balance products
Water Balance Products
  • Abrade or dissolve insect wax layer
  • Thorough coverage important
  • Boric acid
  • Oils
colony collapse disorder
COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER

ERIC MUSSEN

EXTENSION APICULTURIST

UC DAVIS

main topics of discussion
Main Topics of Discussion
  • Description of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)
  • Possible Causes of CCD
  • Pesticide Concerns with Honey Bees
signs of ccd
Signs of CCD
  • Nearly all bees fly from hive
    • quickly: 2-10 days
  • Sometimes, queen and a few newly emerged adults left behind
  • Sometimes, brood (eggs, larvae, pupae) remain in combs
    • will succumb to lack of feed and incubation
signs of ccd22
Signs of CCD
  • Stores remain in the combs
    • honey & “bee bread” (stored pollens)
  • Stores seem to be toxic to immediately re-introduced colony
    • combs suitable after they have “dried out,” been fumigated, or irradiated
  • Stores not scavenged by hive pests
    • more attractive after combs dry out
who is being impacted
Who is being impacted?
  • Overall 2007 figures
    • Colony losses of over 30% reported
      • Normal loss of 15% expected
    • 24% of beekeepers with CCD losses
    • Operations with CCD had losses of 45%
  • Large commercial migratory beekeepers
    • Reporting losses 50-90%
    • CA, FL, TX
  • CCD in 36 states (including NC)
causes of ccd
Causes of CCD?
  • Electromagnetic waves (especially cell phones) interfering with navigation
    • not likely
    • honey bees rely on landmarks to find their way home
    • honey bees rely on polarized atmospheric light to interpret the “bee dances”
causes of ccd25
Causes of CCD?
  • Genetically modified (GM) plants
    • not likely
    • Roundup Ready genes/enzymes, should not impact honey bees
    • Bt genes, or induced parasporal body protein, should not impact honey bees
      • tested against caterpillars and against honey bees of various life stages
causes of ccd26
Causes of CCD?
  • Malnutrition
    • likely to be playing a part
    • key element in honey bee health
      • inherent resistance dependent on nutrition
    • each colony requires one acre of blossoms, daily, to meet nutritional needs
      • has a 50 square mile foraging area
causes of ccd27
Causes of CCD?
  • Malnutrition
    • honey bees require a mix of pollens to meet their nutritional needs
    • natural foods often hard to find
      • foraging habitat converted to houses, streets, highways, shopping malls, parking lots, airports and runways, and agricultural fields
    • weather becoming more unpredictable
      • drought or excessive moisture both can prevent honey bees from obtaining required food
causes of ccd28
Causes of CCD?
  • Infectious diseases
    • bacterial – not often a problem for adult honey bees
    • viral – at least 20 known in honey bees
      • only a few cause recognizable signs of disease
      • recently discovered Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) was described as a “marker” for CCD, but not necessarily the cause
      • IAPV eventually was found in U.S. bee samples from a decade ago
causes of ccd29
Causes of CCD?
  • Infectious diseases
    • fungal – only one genus of fungi is problematic to adult honey bees – Nosema
    • N. ceranae was discovered in CCD studies
      • N. ceranae (Asia) seems to have displaced our old N. apis (Europe), completely
    • N. ceranae also was detected in decade old U.S. bee samples
      • not likely the cause of CCD
causes of ccd30
Causes of CCD?
  • Pesticides
    • Generally, only some insecticides and acaricides are toxic to honey bees
    • Three carboxamide fungicides were toxic to honey bee brood in UC Davis studies
      • captan
      • iprodione (Rovral, Chipco 26019)
      • boscalid (Endura, Pristine, Pageant)
      • excellent activity on brown rot blossom blight
      • there are no bee toxicity warnings on the labels
causes of ccd31
Causes of CCD?
  • Pesticides
    • Active Ingredient Toxicity: The inherent capacity of the chemical to harm an individual bee in a standard exposure test.
      • i.e. oral or contact LD50
    • Product Hazard: Potential for the formulated material to harm individual bees or colonies when used as directed by the label.
    • Sublethal Effect: Dose insufficient to cause death but the treatment has a measurable adverse consequence on survival
slide33
NCDA & CS

Steve Troxler - Commissioner

causes of ccd34
Causes of CCD?
  • Pesticide residues found in CCD hives
    • analyzed 108 pollen and 88 beeswax samples for 171 chemicals
    • 26 insecticides
    • 14 fungicides
    • 6 herbicides
    • 6 insecticide metabolites
    • as many as 17 different pesticides in one sample
causes of ccd35
Causes of CCD?
  • Pesticides found in CCD hives
    • all major classes: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, insect growth regulators
    • Varroa mite control products – fluvalinate and coumaphos most prevalent (71 and 59% of pollen samples - 100% of beeswax samples)
    • chlorpyriphos (Lorsban) next highest (55% in pollen and 77% in beeswax)
    • boscalid (a component of Pristine) was sixth most prevalent in beeswax (13%)
causes of ccd36
Causes of CCD?
  • Worldwide, imidacloprid is suspected of causing honey bee colony mortality, including CCD-like collapses
    • neonicotinoid = chloronicotinyl insecticide
    • imidacloprid is systemic in plants
    • imidacloprid is fairly harmless to mammals, birds and fishes, but it is exceptionally toxic to invertebrates, including honey bees
causes of ccd37
Causes of CCD?
  • Imidacloprid and honey bees
    • Bayer report states that 192 ppb is oral LD50 for adult honey bees
    • Bayer reported that <10 ppb occurs in nectar/pollen of treated sunflowers & canola
    • UC Riverside researchers found 550 ppb in nectar from treated red gum Eucalyptus, a favorite source of winter bee forage in CA
    • 2-3 ppb in sugar syrup causes changes in behavior and learning in adult honey bees
causes of ccd39
Causes of CCD?
  • Imidacloprid and honey bees
    • imidacloprid registered in 1991
    • off-patent in 2006
    • ingredient of 303 products registered in NC
  • Clothianidin linked to German bee kills
    • another CNI
    • seed treatment alleged to cause kill – how?
    • NC: seed treatment (Poncho) & sprayable products (Aloft, Belay, Clutch)
protection of honey bees
Protection of Honey Bees
  • Protection should start at home
    • Apiculture at NCSU – Beekeeping Notes
      • Dr. John Ambrose & Dr. David Tarpy
      • http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/entomology/apiculture/
    • How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides, PNW 591
      • H. Riedl, E. Johansen, L. Brewer, and J. Barbour
      • http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/pnw/pnw591.pdf
      • provides length of residual toxicity in the field, from hours to days
protection of honey bees41
Protection of Honey Bees
  • Registration process (EPA) – “Non-targets”
    • Acute toxicities for adult honey bees required
  • Is a label a legal mandate?
    • Admire (imidacloprid) – “Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area.”
    • Does violating that label “break the law?”
summary
Summary
  • U.S. beekeepers currently are dealing with expected annual losses of 15-25% of their colonies
    • due to parasites, diseases & exposure to toxic chemicals
  • The 30-90% CCD losses appear to have additional causes
  • Colonies can be protected better from exposure to toxic chemicals
slide43
Thank You

NCDA & CS

Steve Troxler - Commissioner