fungicides 101 basics and use in minnesota n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Fungicides 101: Basics and Use in Minnesota PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Fungicides 101: Basics and Use in Minnesota

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

Fungicides 101: Basics and Use in Minnesota - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 282 Views
  • Uploaded on

Fungicides 101: Basics and Use in Minnesota. Private Pesticide Applicator Training. Lizabeth Stahl, Extension Educator – Crops and Dean Malvick, Extension Plant Pathologist. What is a Fungicide?. A Fungicide is:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Fungicides 101: Basics and Use in Minnesota' - betty_james


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
fungicides 101 basics and use in minnesota

Fungicides 101:Basics and Use in Minnesota

Private Pesticide Applicator Training

Lizabeth Stahl, Extension Educator – Crops

and

Dean Malvick, Extension Plant Pathologist

what is a fungicide
What is a Fungicide?
  • A Fungicide is:
    • “A chemical agent that kills or inhibits the growth of fungi or fungal-like organisms”
  • Fungicides can be classified a number of ways including:
    • Mobility in the plant
    • Breadth of activity
    • Mode of Action

White mold in soybean

Source: Field Crop Fungicides for the North Central United States, NC IPM Center, Mueller & Bradley.

classification contact or systemic
Classification: Contact or Systemic
  • Contact (Protectant):
    • Remain on the surface – doesn’t go deeper
    • Have no after-infection activity
    • New plant growth is not protected
  • Systemic:
    • Fungicide that is absorbed into plant tissue
    • Offer some after-infection activity
      • Locally Systemic
        • Absorbed into the immediate area of application
        • Translaminar fungicides move through leaf surface to the other side
      • Upwardly Systemic
        • Moves only upward through the xylem
    • Contrast to glyphosate - a systemic herbicide that can move down to plant roots

Contact-Protectant

Locally Systemic

Upwardly Systemic

contact protectant fungicides
Contact/Protectant Fungicides
  • Typically inhibit spore germination and stop infection
  • Often target multiple sites within a pathogen
  • Must be present BEFORE the pathogen
  • Often effective against different kinds of pathogens
  • Confined to plant surfaces (not absorbed or translocated)
  • Threat of pathogen resistance is LOW
systemic fungicides

Local Penetrant

Systemic

(upward)

Systemic Fungicides
  • Absorbed into the plant, but movement is limited upward or to small area around application site
    • There are no fully systemic fungicides for field crops
  • Protection from the inside, but is eroded via:
    • Dilution and deactivation
  • Most new tissue not protected
  • Reapplication: ~12-20 days
  • Often target a single site within a pathogen
  • Can affect few to many pathogens
  • Resistance risk: MEDIUM to HIGH

Source: Syngenta

classification single or multi site of action
Classification: Single or Multi Site of Action
  • Single-site fungicides:
    • Active against only one critical point, enzyme, or protein in the metabolic pathways of a fungus
    • Tend to be systemic
    • Example: Strobilurins are site-specific fungicides. One mutation at the target site can result in a fungicide-resistant fungal strain.
  • Multi-site fungicides:
    • Affect a number of different metabolic sites within the fungus
classification mode of action
Classification: Mode of Action
  • MOA: How a fungicide kills or suppresses a target fungus
  • Examples of Fungicide MOA:
    • Damages cell membranes
    • Inactivates critical enzymes or proteins
    • Interferes with key processes such as energy production or respiration
    • Example - Strobilurin Family: Fungicides in this family bind to a particular biochemical site in the fungus, stopping energy production by the fungus and leading to fungal death.
biochemical mode of action of fungicides
Biochemical Mode of Action of Fungicides

sterol biosynthesis in membranes

SBIs: DMIs: Triazoles/ Imidazoles, Amines: Morpholines/Piperidines

mitochondrial respiration

QoIs („strobilurins“)

cell division / tubulin

Benzimidazoles (MBCs)

RNA biosynthesis

Phenylamides (PAs)

„Multisites“

e.g. chlorothalonil

amino acid biosynthesis

Anilinopyrimidines (APs)

Source: Syngenta C. P.

slide9

Classification: Chemical Group or Class

  • The name given to a group of fungicide chemicals that share a common mode of action (i.e. strobilurins, triazoles, dithiocarbamates)
  • The chemicals in a group or class may or may not have a similar chemical structure

Classification: Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) Code:

  • FRAC developed to reduce problems with fungicide resistance
    • Fungicide resistance means that a fungicide may no longer be effective for disease management
  • Separates fungicides into groups (codes) by MOA
  • Avoid using products with the same FRAC code more than once/season to reduce development of resistance

Various publications

and this web site list FRAC codes :

www.frac.info

considerations for fungicide use some things to know before applying a fungicide
Considerations for Fungicide UseSome things to know before applying a fungicide
  • Accurate Diagnosis of Disease –

Critical to be certain that the right product is used for the right problem.

    • Diagnosis can be simple or very difficult and can take time
    • Plant Disease Clinic at the U of MN and at other Universities may be needed
  • Type of fungus
  • Plant part infected
  • Modes of infection and spread
  • Weather conditions
  • Latent periods
  • How fungicide affects pathogen

Proper disease identification is a

critical first step in disease management

before using a fungicide also consider
Before Using a Fungicide - Also Consider:
  • Disease incidence

Number of plants or plant parts affected

  • Disease severity

Amount of tissue affected

  • Host genetics
  • Recent & future weather conditions
  • Host growth stage & PHI
  • Fungicide timing, application, & efficacy
  • Yield potential
  • Treatment cost (product & application)
  • Treatment cost vs. potential benefit
factors important for effective disease control
Factors Important For Effective Disease Control
  • Relative efficacy of the fungicide
  • Availability, toxicity, application, residues
  • Rate and Coverage - more critical for fungicides than insecticides (as insects are mobile)
  • Durability - adhesion in rain & irrigation, breakdown in sunlight, movement into tissue
  • Plant Part Target - density and structure of canopy
  • Timing - vulnerable point in life cycle of the pathogen; early applications when infection starts usually more effective than later applications

Simply applying a fungicide does not assure successful disease management

Target Fine to Med

droplet size (above)

vs .Coarse (below)

potential negatives of fungicide use
Potential Negatives of Fungicide Use
  • Cost of fungicide and application
  • Lack of disease management
  • Drift and phytotoxicity
  • Potential toxicity to humans or animals if not used properly
  • Side effects on beneficial fungi (i.e. entomopathogenic fungi and mycorrhizal fungi)
    • Examples: Soybean aphid and spider mites in corn
  • Risk of resistant fungal populations developing

Soybean Aphid attacked by

fungi

Spider mites in corn

Photo from B. Potter

fungicide resistance
Fungicide Resistance
  • A fungus, which is normally sensitive to a fungicide, develops less sensitivity to the damaging effects of the fungicideDekker, 1976
  • Reduced sensitivity is thought to result from genetic mutations or naturally occurring sub-populations of resistant individuals
  • Experience with the strobilurins (QoI fungicides) worldwide indicates there is a high risk of development of resistant pathogens. Resistant strains have developed in fungi that cause diseases of cereals, turf, and cucurbits.
resistance management strategies
Resistance Management Strategies
  • Integrate Management Strategies
    • Use resistant varieties/hybrids when possible
    • Use appropriate cultural practices
    • Scout fields – note disease incidence & severity
  • Diversify Fungicides
    • Use combinations of single-site & multi-site fungicides
    • Alternate MOA (FRAC codes)
  • Minimize Exposure to Fungicides
    • Limit unnecessary use - is control necessary?
    • Avoid using same active ingredient or FRAC group more than once per season
  • Apply fungicides based on monitoring and/or forecasting
  • Don’t use reduced rates
  • Apply fungicide preventively or early in disease cycle when warranted
  • Always read & follow pesticide label

FRAC Code on front

page of product label

fungicide use in mn
Fungicide Use in MN
  • Using a fungicide when disease levels are high enough can make sense
    • In corn and soybean in MN, disease levels rarely reach levels where a foliar fungicide application would be economical
  • Fungicide applications for “plant health” (application in the absence of disease):
    • Inconsistent results in University trials in corn and soybean
    • Potential negatives: kill “good fungi”, increased input costs, increased risk of developing resistance, etc.
  • Seed treatments –
    • Becoming widespread on soybean - may be beneficial in some fields, but don’t expect a consistent advantage
fungicides as seed treatments
Fungicides as Seed Treatments

Can protect seed and seedlings from seed- and soil-borne diseases

Seed treatment: challenges

  • Pesticides with appropriate activity may not be available
  • May have little or no systemic activity
  • May not move with the expanding root system
  • Effective concentration may dwindle too soon

Contacts

  • No movement into seed
  • No control of internal pathogens
  • Protection until seed coat breaks

Systemics

  • Movement into seed, root, and shoot tissues
  • Control of internal and emergence pests
china steps up checks on u s soybeans after finding pesticide residue
China steps up checks on U.S. soybeans after finding pesticide residue
  • Beijing, December 26, 2008 -- China's quality supervisor said this week that it would step up checks of soybeans from the United States after tons of soybeans were found tainted by pesticides.The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (GAQSIQ) said the local quality watchdog in eastern Zhejiang Province found some 57,000 tons of U.S. soybeans were mixed with soybean seeds coated with three types of pesticides -- metalaxyl, fludioxonil and thiamethoxam.Such seeds are for planting and usually bear warning colors such as red, blue or green, said the GAQSIQ.In response, the GAQSIQ said it had issued a notice to all local quality bureaus, ordering them to implement an early-warning system within 90 days and step up inspections of U.S. soybeans.The GAQSIQ also informed the United States about the issue and required the U.S. side to intensify quality checks on soybeans destined for China.The GAQSIQ said it had found soybean seeds mixed in many batches of soybeans imported from the United States, which it said indicated there were major problems in the U.S. soybean export system.Source: XINHUA, December 23, 2008

NOT THIS WAY!!!!

resources
Resources

http://pdc.umn.edu/

Can be ordered via the internet:

shop.extension.umn.edu

Or Call: 1-800-876-8636

www.extension.umn.edu/cropdiseases/

sources
Sources
  • The information contained in this presentation came from several different sources. Some information is from the authors, several sources are noted in the presentation, and some information is from:
  • Field Crop Fungicides for the North Central United States, Mueller & Bradley, 2008. North Central IPM Center : http://www.ncipmc.org/fieldcrops/fungicide_manual.pdf
  • Report on Plant Disease, No. 1002, September 2005, Characteristics of Fungicides Used in Field Crops, U of IL Extension: http://web.aces.uiuc.edu/vista/pdf_pubs/1002.pdf