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Chapter 1 What is Behavior Modification?. Behavior. simple action can be overt (observable) can be covert (not directly observable) covert behavior must be inferred from overt responses. What is Not Behavior?. interpretive descriptions of a personality trait diagnostic labels

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behavior
Behavior
  • simple action
  • can be overt (observable)
  • can be covert (not directly observable)
  • covert behavior must be inferred from overt responses
what is not behavior
What is Not Behavior?
  • interpretive descriptions of a personality trait
  • diagnostic labels
  • outcome of behavior
origins of behavior
Origins of Behavior
  • learning: some behavior develops as result of experience
  • hereditary factors: some behavioral responses are based on inherited characteristics
learning
Learning
  • learning is a permanent change in behavior that results from experience
  • learning processes include:
    • respondent conditioning
    • operant conditioning
    • modeling
    • cognitive processes
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • antecedent, behavior, and consequence define behavioral situations
    • antecedents set the occasion for the behavior
    • behavior is what organisms do
    • consequence influence the future occurrence of the behavior
operant conditioning continued
Operant Conditioning (continued)
  • the three-term contingency is the relationship among antecedent, behavior, and consequence
  • operant and respondent conditioning often have concurrent influence on a single behavior
modeling
Modeling
  • modeling is learning through observation of others
  • also called social, observational, vicarious, and imitative learning
  • Bandura showed modeling influenced aggression
  • modeling influenced by observation of consequences
modeling continued
Modeling (continued)
  • modeling can:
    • initiate behavior
    • teach new task
    • influence response rate
    • teach emotional responses
cognitive processes
Cognitive Processes
  • cognition is thought
  • thought can be considered a covert antecedent
  • self-efficacy appears to be positively correlated with the likelihood of success
behavior modification
Behavior Modification
  • focuses on behavior
  • emphasizes influences of learning and the environment
  • takes a scientific approach
  • uses pragmatic and active methods to change behavior
focus on behavior
Focus on Behavior
  • avoid interpretive labels and diagnostic systems
  • focus on behavioral deficits or behavioral excess
learning and the environment
Learning and the Environment
  • behavior changes as a result of learning
  • changing antecedents and consequences can lead to behavior change
  • learning approach may be limited by physiological and cultural influences
scientific orientation
Scientific Orientation
  • use empirically validated therapy techniques
  • therapy outcomes evaluated objectively
pragmatic and active methods to change behavior
Pragmatic and Active Methods to Change Behavior
  • therapy techniques selected based on effectiveness
  • some methods based on operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, and modeling research and theory
  • cognitive methods are based on our understanding of how our thoughts lead to actions
pragmatic and active methods to change behavior continued
Pragmatic and Active Methods to Change Behavior (continued)
  • participants take a more active role in therapy
early theory and research
Early Theory and Research
  • John Locke (tabula rasa)
  • Pavlov (respondent conditioning)
  • Thorndike
  • John Watson (father of behaviorism)
  • Watson and Rayner (Little Albert)
  • Mary Cover Jones (Peter)
emergence and growth of behavior modification
Emergence and Growth of Behavior Modification
  • 1950s: behavior modification gains acceptance
  • 1960s: the establishment of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
  • 1970s: behavior modification expands to include cognition
effective applications of behavior modification
Effective Applications of Behavior Modification
  • parenting and parent/child relationships
    • oppositional behavior
    • bed-wetting
  • education
    • programmed instruction
    • PSI
    • peer tutoring
    • classroom conduct
effective applications of behavior modification continued
Effective Applications of Behavior Modification (continued)
  • health and sports
    • health risks
    • compliance with treatments
    • enhanced athletic performance
  • employment settings
    • increase productivity
    • reduce losses
    • improve safety
effective applications of behavior modification continued1
Effective Applications of Behavior Modification (continued)
  • self-management
    • learn behavioral techniques to control own behavior