Graphic Arts What is GraphicCommunications?
GraphicCommunications is… • The act of transferring information from creature to creature, person to person, and point to point. • Ways of using printed images to convey a message
History of Graphic Communications • Simplest form of communication: facial expression or gestures
History of Graphic Communications • Members of early civilizations used • Sounds • Cries • Screams • Gestures to communicate • Tribal language resulted
History of Graphic Communications • 15,000 BC • Cave paintings from Paleolithic to Neolithic period
3000 BC Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, meaning "sacred writing” developed, which were alphabetic, syllabic and determinative
Egyptians made a material called papyrus to write on • They made ink from cuttlefish • They made pens from hollow reeds, bamboo, and feathers
1,000 BC • Carved or scratched signs and simple figures called Petroglyphs on cliff walls at Newspaper Rock, Utah
1000 BC Greeks adopt the Phoenician alphabet but change five consonants to vowels A,E,I,O,U, creating a true phonetic alphabet
500 BC Roman alphabet, adopted from the Greeks, comprised of 23 letters (ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTVXYZ) and simplified letter names to a, b, c
105 AD • Paper was invented in China, Ts'ai Lun, a high official, reported his invention of paper making to Emperor Ho, using tree bark, cloth and hemp paper
751 AD Paper making technology from the Chinese travels to the West via the Silk Route
1450 AD Johann Gutenberg invents moveable type matrices in black letter style consisting of 300 letters, ligatures, abbreviations and the printing press, and prints 42-line Bible
1639 AD Stephen Daye, a locksmith from England, emigrates to Cambridge, Mass and founds the first printing establishment in America
1704 AD First American news weekly 'The Boston News-Letter' published by John Campbell in Boston, Mass
1728 AD Benjamin Franklin begins publishing the 'Pennsylvania Gazette', importing type from England
The first authenticated image of Abraham Lincoln was a daguerreotype of him as U.S. Congressman elect in 1846 1839 AD Daguerreotype photography, a system of developing images on metal plates coated with silver oxide, developed by Louis Jacques Daguerre in France
1886 AD Line-casting keyboard typesetting machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler, coined the 'line-o-type' by Whitelaw Reid, editor of the New York Tribune
1905 AD Ira Rubel develops offset lithography using a rubber blanket to transfer the image from zinc plate to paper
1975 Ed Roberts coined the term personal computer when he introduced the Altair 8800 Today the Altair is widely recognized as the spark that led to the microcomputer revolution Its first programming language was Microsoft’s founding product. Altair BASIC
1984 AD Steve Jobs introduces the first Macintosh computer to the world during a commercial during Super bowl XVIII (18). It was called the Macintosh How many of you have an Ipod or an Iphone? This is the great-great-great-great-great-great- great-great-great-great-great-great Grandad of Your Ipod!!!
As you can tell Graphic Communication is always changing and will continue to change as long as there are people to invent new technologies!!!