chapter 14 the last great nomadic challenges from chinggis khan to timur n.
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Chapter 14 The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur

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  1. Chapter 14The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur Ms. Ford University High School AP World History

  2. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • Mongols were a nomadic society • Drove herds of goats and sheep • Ate meat and milk from herded animals • Traded hides and dairy products for jewelry, weapons and cloth • Mongol society divided into tribes • Divided into kin-related clans • Clans and tribes combined during war • Leaders were elected by free men

  3. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • 12th Century- Kabul Khan led alliance that defended Mongols against the Qin in China • Timujin (Chinggis Khan) led Mongols after his father was poisoned by rival nomadic group • Timujin was taken prisoner by a rival tribe in 1182 CE but escaped • Joined the camp of a Mongol chieftan • Won reputation of being a warrior and military leader • In 1206 CE, was elected khagan, leader of the Mongol tribes

  4. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • Warriors in Mongol Tribes • Calvary only, short bows • Forces were divided into tumens, or fighting units of 10,000 men • Used messenger force to carry urgent messages • Bravery- a must • Used spies and informants to create maps of areas they were going to invade

  5. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • 1207 CE- first military campaign and defeated Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia • Xi Xia ruler submitted to Khan • Attacked Jin Empire • Was difficult to overtake, but used captured Chinese to create new weapons • Captured artisans, scholars • Killed or sold others into slavery • Devastated towns they conquered

  6. Map on page 304

  7. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • Attacked and took over the Kara Khitai Empire by 1219 CE • Conquered Khwarazm Empire in 1219 CE • Modern day Iran, Turkimenistan, Afghanistan

  8. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • Established capital at Karakorum • All religions tolerated by Mongols • Script was devised for Mongolian language • Mongol conquests brought peace to some regions • Secure trade routes

  9. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan • 1226 CE- Khan took an army of 180,000 to complete conquest of China • Conquered Xi Xia, but Chinggis Khan dies in battle in August 1227 CE • Chinggis Khan’s body was taken back to Karakorum for burial • Elected Ogedei to succeed Chinggis • Ogedei directed troops for more conquests

  10. The Mongol Drive to the West • After Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongol empire was divided into four khanates • Golden Horde Empire, Djagatai Empire, Ilkhan Empire, Empire of Kubilai Khan • The Golden Horde was led by Chinggis Khan’s grandson Batu • Led invasion of Russia, wanted to press into Europe • Russia was divided into many little kingdoms and they couldn’t defend against invaders • From 1237-1238 CE, Mongol forces invaded Russia and took many Russian cities • Returned in 1240 CE and took Kiev

  11. The Mongol Drive to the West • Moscow was gradually rebuilt • As Moscow grew in strength, the Golden Horde declined • Religious toleration for Orthodox church • 1380 CE- Battle of Kulikova, Russian forces defeat Golden Horde • Russia was cut off from European influence, but were protected from attacks

  12. The Mongol Drive to the West • Conquest of Europe was interrupted by the death of khagan Ogedei • Hulegu, ruler of the Ilkhan Empire, captured Baghdad in 1258 CE • Killed Abbasid caliph • Mongols defeated by Mamluks of Egypt in 1260 CE • Hulegu was forced to reconsider his plan to conquer the entire Muslim world

  13. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History • Conquered the Xi Xia and Jin Empires, turned toward the Song Dynasty • Kubilai Khan led forces against Song • 1235-1279 CE- Mongols fought against the Chinese • Kubilai ruled most of China by 1271 CE • Set up Yuan Dynasty in 1279 CE • Kubilai passed many laws to make distinction between Mongol and Chinese • Built capital at Tatu (present day Beijing)

  14. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History • Mongol women did not practice Chinese customs • Social Standing in Yuan Dynasty • Mongols • Muslim and Asian nomadic allies • north Chinese • Ethnic Chinese from north and south • Minority Chinese from the south

  15. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History • Kubilai Khan welcomed the Polo’s from Venice • Marco Polo lived and served as an administrator for 17 years • Most Chinese (ethnic Chinese) thought Kubilai Khan was a barbarian and did not reconcile to Mongol rule • Merchants prospered • Developed a navy • Kubilai sought to reduce peasant tax, forced labor • Sought to establish elementary schools in villages

  16. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History • The fall of Yuan China • Song loyalists revolted in the South • Successors lacked capacity for leadership • Famine • Corruption • Rising taxes for peasants, forced labor • White Lotus Society- secret religious sect, dedicated to overthrowing government • Fighting, chaos • Mongols escaped to central Asia • Ju Yuanzhang- founded the Ming Dynasty

  17. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History • Timur-i Lang (Timur the Lame) was a nomadic Turk • Moved armies from Samarkand to Persia, Mesopotamia, India and S. Russia • Barbaric destruction • Timurid Empire • Ended in 1405 after his death