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Europe Plunges into War. Great War Begins. Russia began mobilizing army toward Austria-Hungary Russia mobilized toward German front because they expected Germany to help Austria-Hungary Germany took it as a sign of war so Germany declared war on Russia and then on France

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great war begins
Great War Begins
  • Russia began mobilizing army toward Austria-Hungary
  • Russia mobilized toward German front because they expected Germany to help Austria-Hungary
  • Germany took it as a sign of war so Germany declared war on Russia and then on France
  • Great Britain declares war on Germany
central powers
Central Powers
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • Bulgaria and Ottomans would quickly join
allied powers
Allied Powers
  • Great Britain, France and Russia
  • Japan
  • Italy switches sides and joins the Allies
bloody stalemate
Bloody Stalemate
  • Deadlock region known as the western front
  • Schlieffen Plan
    • named after German General
    • 2 front war, defeat the French and then the Russians
    • Russia, slow mobilization, poor railroads
weapons
Weapons
  • Tank—invented to get through barbed wire
  • Airplane
  • Flame Throwers
  • machine gunners
  • trench warfare
  • Chemical Warfare—gases
    • mustard gas—burns, blisters, blindness
    • Phostine—fluid enters lungs, asphyxiation
    • Poison—sneezing, nausea, vomiting
fighting reaches its peak
Fighting Reaches its Peak
  • Feb. 1916, German offensive at Verdun
  • Each side lost 300,000
  • British retaliate north of Verdun in the Valley of the Somme River (July 1916)
  • Somme
    • 20,000 British die
    • battle ended November, each side lost ½ million
  • Gains
    • Verdun: Germans advance 4 miles
    • Somme: British gained 5 miles
battle on the eastern front
Battle on the Eastern Front
  • Eastern Front: German/Russian boarder
  • Russian offensive into Austria and Germany
  • German counterattack at Tannenberg. Germans won.
  • Austria defeated the Russians
  • 1916, Unindustrialized Russia near collapse, low on supplies, food, and bullets