War in Europe · 1936 – German troops move into the Rhineland, bordering France and Belgium. ·.
· 1938 – Germany claimed the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia.
· Sept. 1938 – At the Munich Conference, Hitler invited the leaders of Britain and France to Germany and assured them that he wanted no more territory. Before signing the Munich agreement. From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, Ciano
* Britain and France gave into Germany hoping that it would avoid warfare. This was known as appeasement. Soviet poster of the 1930's by Kukryniksy on the Munich agreement.
Appeasement • Britain and France allow for Hitler to go on unopposed as he expands German territory in Europe. • They ignore German military build-up even though it violates the treaty of Versailles. • Hoped that ignoring these actions would prevent conflict from escalating to war. • Appeasement Video British Prime Minister - Neville Chamberlain
Stalin and Hitler • 1939 – In the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Hitler and Stalin agreed not to attack one another.
Stalin and Hitler also agreed to divide Poland and Eastern Europe amongst themselves. • September 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland without having to fear of a Soviet attack. * Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
Blitzkrieg! “Lightning Warfare” Blitzkrieg Video
France Falls • Germany marches into France through Belgium • Italy joins the side of Germany and invades from the south • French Leader Charles DeGaulle Escapes to Great Britain
June, 1940 France surrenders.
The Soviet Union seized eastern Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. • 1940 – Germany conquers Denmark, Belgium, Holland, Norway and France. Europe 1935-1939 Europe 1939 Europe 1940 Europe 1941
1940 - The Germans severely bombed Great Britain during the Battle of Britainbut were unable the defeat the island nation. (video link) German bomber over London
'We shall fight on the beaches ...‘, June 4, 1940 '... We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender ...' Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister
American Neutrality • FDR changed the Neutrality Acts through a “cash and carry” plan, in which the U.S. sold arms to the Allies, but they had to carry them away on their own ships. • Meanwhile, the U.S. prepared for war by setting up the first ever peacetime draft in U.S. history.
A Third Term for FDR • Breaking tradition, FDR ran for, and won, a third term as President in 1940.
* 1941 – Germany launched a surprise attack on the Soviet Union. The U.S. decided to extend Lend-Lease aid to the Soviets as well.
Arsenal of Democracy • Lend-Lease Act (1941) – allowed sales or loans to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the U.S.” Atlantic Charter – set up by FDR and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941, establishing the goals for the end of the war: • FDR called on all Americans to defend the “Four Freedoms”(freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear)