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  1. Will The Pathogens Get Me? 2001-2002 Langdon Area High School Health Careers Class

  2. What is a Pathogen? A pathogen or germ causes infection and disease.

  3. RABIES By: Howard Klingbeil and Steve Symons

  4. What is Rabies? Rabies is an acute and Deadly viral infection of the central nervous system.

  5. What Animals Carry Rabies? • Raccoons • Skunks • Foxes • Bats • Ferrets • Dogs • Cats

  6. The Symptoms of Animals • Very excitable • Vicious attacks • Biting • Drooling • Lack of fear • Aggressiveness • Muscular dysfunction • Death

  7. The Symptoms of Humans • Low grade fever • Pain at the bite sight • Swallowing difficulty • Restlessness • Irritability • Convulsions • Drooling

  8. Reported Cases of Rabies, 1999

  9. Animal Rabies by Year in North Dakota1989-2001

  10. Treatment of Rabies • Immediate thorough cleansing of animal bite or scratch wounds with liberal amounts of soap and water or flushing the mucous membranes with warm water • A vaccine which is a series of five shots. The shots are given of days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after exposure.

  11. Prevention of Rabies • Make sure your pets and other domesticated animals regularly get animal rabies shots. • Keep your dog on a leash when its outside of the yard and do not chain it inside the yard. • Avoid contact with wild or unfamiliar animals, and don’t touch them even when they are dead. • Seal basement, porch, and attic openings and cap chimney to prevent animals from entering your home. • Report strays or animals acting strangely or sick to your local animal control authorities.

  12. Bibliography • Epidemiology. CDC. 6 June 2001. 6 pag. Online: Internet Explorer. Yahoo. Internet. October 30, 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/Epidem…/Epidemiology.ht • North Dakota Rabies Stats. Division Disease Control. 16 August 2001. 8 pag. Online: Internet Explorer. Yahoo. Internet. October 31, 2001. http://www.health.state.nd.us/ndhd/prevent/disease/rabies/stats.htm • Rabies. Electric Library. 1 pag. Online: Internet Explorer. Yahoo. Internet. October 31, 2001. www.encyclopedia.com • Rabies. NIAID Fact sheet. 13 January 2001. 5 pag. Online: Internet Explorer. Yahoo. Internet. October 31, 2001. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/rabies.htm

  13. Smallpox By Joel Gustafson & Brian Vikan

  14. Timeline of Smallpox • 300 b.c. The Chinese use inoculation to prevent the disease. • 1520 a.d. Smallpox was brought to the Americas by Hernando Cortez, killing 3,500,000 Aztecs in two years. • 1600’s Spaniards brought the disease to Caribbean Islands and Florida. • 1616-19 A Smallpox Plague killed 90% of the population of the Indians in the area of Massachusetts. • 1666 Smallpox epidemic in England. • 1797 Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for Smallpox in England using infection from Cowpox sores. • 1821 The use of the Smallpox vaccine in the United States was prevented.

  15. Symptoms • Symptoms appear in newly infected victims 10 to 12 days days later. • 2-4 days later a rash appears on the face and spreads to other parts of the body.

  16. Smallpox could be a Threat All Over! • AT WORK

  17. It could also be a threat in your city.

  18. More Symptoms • At first it’s like the flu - causing and under-the-weather feeling of fever, nausea,vomiting, headache, and backache. • Severe abdominal pain and disorientation can set in, as small, round sores erupt all over the skin.

  19. Facts • There is no treatment for Smallpox. • Smallpox was once so common that almost everyone had it at some time. • In 1971, the U.S. ended routine vaccinations. • In May, 1980, WHO (World Health Organization) formally announced that smallpox had been eliminated.

  20. Other Facts • Smallpox is a highly contagious virus that can be spread through the air and infects 30% of the people to it. • About 20 to 30% of the people who are infected will die, and survivors can be left with permanent scars.

  21. Ways smallpox could spread. By Touching someone through physical contact By Touch if Infected

  22. Work Cited • The UCLA Biomedical History and Special Collections Divisions. Http://www.library.ucla.edu • “What is Smallpox?” MSN Health http://www.content.health.msn.com • Henderson, Donald A. “Smallpox” The World Book Encyclopedia.

  23. Hepatitis B By Jamie Coyle

  24. Main Symptoms • The main symptoms are fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice (yellow coloration of the skin). • Other symptoms may include nausea/vomiting and joint pain. • When you have this disease, you eventually go through all these symptoms.

  25. Ways to contract the virus. • Having “unsafe non-condom sex.” • Sharing personal items such as razors, especially with Hepatitis B virus on them. • Using infected needles during excessive illegal drug use. • Contamination on tattoo needles.

  26. Other types of Hepatitis • Hepatitis A, which is the mildest form • Hepatitis B, which is the second worst, but can also be controlled. • Hepatitis C, which is the most serious one, if you get this one, chances are you will soon be going by by.

  27. Transmission occurs when…. The body fluids/blood of an infected person enters the un-immune body of another person. People who are at risk for Hepatitis B are also have chances of getting Hepatitis C.

  28. Risk Groups • Persons with multiple sex partners and don’t use condoms. • Men that have sex with men. • Any sexual contact with an infected person will give you this disease. • Using sterile needles and condoms will help prevent you from getting this disease.

  29. Statistics • Highest rate of people that get it are in the 20 to 49 year old age group. • There has been a great decline in infected children due to routine vaccinations. • An estimated 1.25 chronically infected americans (20-30% get it in childhood). • About 400 million people are carrying this disease around.

  30. Works Cited www.yahoo/health.com www2hepb.org/info.html www.globalserve.net/~harlequin/HBV/history.htm ND board of health webpage www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis

  31. ANTHRAX By: Chris, Adam, and Michael

  32. Definition • Anthrax is a spore forming bacterium.

  33. Types of Anthrax • There are three types of Anthrax • 1.Cutaneous • 2.Intestinal • 3.Inhalation

  34. Symptoms of Cutaneous Anthrax • Raised itchy bump • Vesicle into a painless ulcer with a black necrotic area in the center • Lymph glands in adjacent area may swell

  35. Symptoms of Intestinal Anthrax • Nausea • Loss of appetite • Vomiting • Fever • Vomiting of blood • Severe Diarrhea

  36. Symptoms of Inhalation Anthrax • Common cold • Severe breathing problems • Shock

  37. Prevention • All three types of Anthrax can be prevented with vaccinations.

  38. Spread By • Cutaneous Anthrax is spread by open wounds from human to human. • Intestinal Anthrax is spread by red contaminated meat with ingestion. • Inhalation Anthrax is spread through the air by breathing it in.

  39. Cures • Cutaneous Anthrax can be treated and cured with vaccinations and antibiotics. • Intestinal Anthrax can be treated with vaccinations and antibiotics. It is not always curable. • Inhalation can be treated for a few days with antibiotics. 90% of all victims will die.

  40. Cutaneous Anthrax

  41. Intestinal Anthrax

  42. Inhalation Anthrax

  43. Works Cited medlineplus.gov www.anthrax.osd.mil/Site_Files/multimedia/images/bacslide02.jpg www.aomc.org/com Diseases/ Anthrax.html http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/anthrax.html

  44. AIDS/HIV By: Jeremy Pritchard & Heather Moser

  45. Definition of AIDS/HIV • AIDS - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome • HIV - human immunodeficiency virus

  46. Symptoms • Weight loss • Persistent Fever • Extreme Fatigue • Diarrhea • Swollen lymph glands • Loss of balance • Disorientation

  47. Prevention • Aids is spread by unsafe sex methods, dirty needles, contaminated blood, and some body fluids such as: semen, and vaginal secretions. • To prevent AIDS/HIV you should practice safe sex and be aware of infected fluids and dirty needles.

  48. Cures • Currently there are no cures for the AIDS virus. However, we do know that household bleach can kill it and that the virus can not live outside the body for more than a few seconds.

  49. Statistics • An American is infected with AIDS every 13 minutes. • Someone dies from AIDS every 17 minutes. • There have been 733,374 cases of AIDS in the U.S. since 1981 and that number increases by the minute. Out of these cases 300,000 people have died and that number is also growing by the minute.

  50. Statistics in North Dakota • From the year 1986 to 1995 there were only 65 cases reported. There are possibly more infected because some people never get tested and pass on the infection before they realize they have the virus. • Statistics show that in 1990-1991 the rate of change in reported AIDS cases was by far the highest.