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  1. Technical Process Integration: Trends and Opportunities 9th Technical DayTAJAMAR-aede-IFRA October 10, 2008 Twyla J. Cummings, PhD

  2. Discussion Topics Overview of RIT and SPM The Printing Industry Center at RIT News Media Program Focus PIC Research Study

  3. Overview of RIT and SPM

  4. About RIT • Founded in 1829 • An internationally recognized leader in professional and career- oriented education • More than 15,000 students • Eight colleges

  5. About RIT

  6. School of Print Media One of six schools within RIT's College of Imaging Arts and Sciences Undergraduate degrees in New Media Publishing and Graphic Media MS Degree in Print Media (on-campus and on-line) 14 Faculty

  7. Resources & Facilities • Pre-Media & Publishing Labs

  8. Resources and Facilities • Printing Applications Laboratory • RIT is home to the most complete collection of printing equipment dedicated to education and research you’ll find anywhere in the world, from conventional presses to digital printing engines to advanced analytical labs.

  9. Resources and Facilities • Flexography Laboratory • Mark Andy 8-color • UV, water-based, and solvent based ink systems

  10. Resources and Facilities • Digital Printing Laboratory • HP Indigo • Xeikon • Xerox DocuTech and DocuColor Technology

  11. Printing Industry Center at RIT

  12. Printing Industry Center at RIT Printing Industry Center Academic Programs Printing Applications Lab Industry Education Programs

  13. Printing Industry Center at RIT • Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Industry Center • One of 25 Centers in USA • Established in 2001 • Dedicated to the study of major business environment influences on the printing industry

  14. Mission and Operations Identify critical issues with partners Frame research questions for industry research Engage graduate students as research assistants Report back to partners Provide summer co-op opportunities for graduate students

  15. Printing Industry Center Industry Partners

  16. News Media Focus in SPM

  17. Historically, the School of Print Media has played a significant role in the furtherance of technological and educational advances in the area of newspaper research.

  18. News Media Program Focus • Research and Publishing • Curriculum Development • Academic • Industry • Student Engagement • Strategic Partnerships • Industry Exposure

  19. Program Accomplishments • Research and Publishing • Articles published in Newspapers and Technology • PIC Monograph focused on newspaper research completed • Graduate student research published by Newspaper Association of America

  20. Strategic Partners • Newspaper focus established in PIC • Gannett • EW Scripps • On-going newspaper visits • Chicago Tribune • New York Times • Democrat and Chronicle • Gatehouse Media • Association memberships • NAA • E-pub • Society of News Design • Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communications

  21. Curriculum • Incorporated more newspaper publishing focus into SPM course curriculum • Graduate • Undergraduate • RIT’s Industry Education Programs ( • Industry training opportunities

  22. Student Engagement • Co-ops/Permanent Employment • St. Petersburg Times • Daily Press • Wall Street Journal • Democrat and Chronicle • NY Times • NY Post • Gatehouse Media

  23. Student Engagement • Research Assistantships for Graduate Student Newspaper Research • Scripps Howard • Gannett • Miller Chair • Printing Industry Center at RIT • The “Loop” - an intercollegiate multi-media program; collaboration with Rochester’s Democrat and Chronicle

  24. Industry Exposure • Presentations • ING (International Newspaper Group) • IGAEA (International Graphic Arts Educators Association) • 9th Technical Day • Industry Day at SPM • Conference Attendance • NEXPO • ING • Paul and Louise Miller Lecture Series

  25. Twyla J. Cummings, Ph.D.Paul & Louise Miller Distinguished ProfessorHoward Vogl, M.S.Visiting ProfessorClaudia Cristina Alvarez CasanovaGraduate AlumniJavier Rodriguez BorladoGraduate Student An Examination of Business and Workflow Models for U.S. Newspapers

  26. Executive Summary The newspaper industry is being redefined by changes of historic proportions resulting in a disruptive shift among the core audience of newspapers. Many industry pundits have commented that the traditional business model is "broken.“ Thus the printed newspaper is no longer considered the primary "news" information source.

  27. Introduction The printed newspaper represents one of the oldest and most widespread forms of mass media in the U.S. (Albarran, 2002). Many newspapers are owned by holding companies that not only own newspapers, but other media businesses such as TV, cable and radio stations, publishing companies and telecom companies.

  28. Major Players in U.S. Newspaper Industry Gannett Company, Inc. The McClatchy Company Times Mirror Company The New York Times Company News Corp E.W. Scripps Company Cox Publishing Incorporated Gatehouse Media

  29. Overview U.S. Newspaper circulation is declining Newspaper publishers can no longer rely on the printed paper for sustainable revenues

  30. Overview Total newspaper circulation, 1940 to 2006 (Newspaper Association of America, 2008)

  31. Newspaper Industry Challenges Electronic media Declining readership Technology

  32. Current Trends in Newspaper Production and Design Web based and new media services Hybrid (semi-commercial) production Product customization Physical changes to the printed paper

  33. Research Objectives To acquire a understanding of traditional and emerging newspaper publishing business models To review audience analysis To understand the prepress and production workflows for newspapers and to determine if there are differences based on size

  34. Research Methodology In-depth secondary research study Developed four section research questionnaire: demographic, market information, audience questions, and workflow Validated and revised questionnaire Administered questionnaire via email or in person to five newspaper entities

  35. Study Limitations Limited number of research participants (lack of response) Data gaps due to incomplete surveys Inconsistency in data collection methods: in person versus email Limited access to large newspapers due to the complex, fragmented infrastructure and layers of management

  36. Research Findings • Data collected from five newspapers: 1 large, 2 medium and 2 small • Company size defined based on total circulation as follows: • Small (S1, S2) – less than 50,000 copies • Medium (M1, M2) – 50,001 – 150,000 copies • Large (L1) – greater than 150,000 copies

  37. Circulation Data Daily circulation for research participants

  38. Newspaper Publishing Business Models Traditional – newspaper central focus

  39. New and Emerging Models Focus shifts from product to audience

  40. Newspaper Publishing Business Models • Emerging Model • Newspaper companies are now news media companies • No longer focus exclusively on the printed newspaper • Current business model is diverse • Goal is to reach the widest audience • No longer think only of subscribers, but audiences • Focus on producing products for a cross-section audiences

  41. Newspaper Publishing Business Models • The revenue streams from emerging business model are: • Circulation of printed and on-line news content • Advertising: print and on-line • Inserts printed by other printers and inserted into the newspaper • Other products including magazines, other newspapers, inserts, and flyers • Other services such as mailing and the distribution of other newspapers

  42. New/Future Business Strategies • Participants seem to support a diversification strategy to maximize profitability • It appears that the following changes to the physical paper are most common for the medium and small newspapers: • Reduced web width • Reduced page count • Increased use of color • Elimination and addition of sections

  43. Audience Analysis • Core Audience • Core audience shrinking • Participants want to establish profitable segments with this group • Primary research indicated that the core audience of most newspapers ranged between 30 to 49 years of age • An analysis of 131 newspapers in the Audience-Fax database (2008) shows the majority of readers are between 50 to 64 years of age

  44. Audience Analysis • Readership • As audience preference for media has changed, print readership has declined while online readership has increased. • Integrated Audience • Audience media preferences changing • Focus on combining print and on-line readership to increase advertising revenue potential • Audience Fax initiative tracks integrated print and on-line audiences (NAA)

  45. Prepress and Production Workflow

  46. Prepress Workflow • PDF has become the de facto file format standard used to receive information from external sources • Majority of participants use totally automatic archiving systems • Newspaper prepress departments are generating a variety of products that differ from those printed in production

  47. Prepress Workflow • More automation in prepress workflow of medium newspaper • Content created • Same workflow used for editorial and advertising • Standards • Few standards used; no plans to implement • PDF-X standard rarely used although PDF use increasing

  48. Production Workflow There were no major investment plans for upgrading or changing technology in the near future The only product produced by all the newspapers in the study (in addition to their own newspaper) was other newspapers

  49. Production Workflow • Automation • Correlation between newspaper size and the level of automation • The larger the operation, the more automation • Minimal automation in the small newspaper • Quality Control • Small newspapers do not have formal quality control procedures in place

  50. Graphical Representation of Newspaper Publishing Workflow Prepress Plate Production Press Post Production