oxygenation l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Oxygenation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Oxygenation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system Oxygen: a clear, odorless gas that constitutes approximately 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell. Respiration: is the process of gas exchange between individual and the environment.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Oxygenation' - bernad

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


Unit Eight

Oxygen: a clear, odorless gas that constitutes approximately 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.
  • Respiration: is the process of gas exchange between individual and the environment.
the process of respiration involves several components
The process of respiration involves several components:
  • Pulmonary ventilation: the movement of air between the atmosphere and alveoli of the lungs.
  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and capillaries.
  • Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via blood to tissues.
  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between capillaries and cell.
functions of pulmonary system
Functions of pulmonary system:
  • Ventilation: is the movement of air in and out of the lung.
  • Respiration: is the process of gas exchange.
manifestations of altered respiratory function
Manifestations of Altered Respiratory Function
  • Cough
  • Sputum Production
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Chest Pain
  • Abnormal Breath Sounds
  • Accessory Muscle Use
  • Cyanosis
  • Clubbing fingers.
anatomy and physiology of respiratory system
Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system:
  • 1) Upper respiratory tract:
  • a) Nose – made of cartilage and bone and is designed to warm, moisten, and filter air as it comes into the system.
  • b) Pharynx – (throat) conducts food and air.
  • C) Larynx – (voice box) connects the pharynx and the trachea; made of cartilage; contains vocal cords.
  • D) Epiglottis – flap of tissue that covers trachea; ensures food travels down the esophagus.
  • 2) Lower Respiratory tract:
  • Trachea – (windpipe) tubular passage way for air; carries air to the lungs, C-shaped cartilage rings, divides at end.
  • Bronchi – pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs; have cartilage, lining is ciliated & secretes mucus.
  • Bronchioles – tiny tubes lacking cartilage and cilia; possess smooth muscle
Alveoli – cup shaped structures at the end of the bronchioles that resemble bunches of grapes; are in direct contact with capillaries (gas exchange); covered with SURFACTANT that prevent alveoli from collapsing.
  • Lungs – paired, cone-shaped organs that are surrounded by a pleural membrane, made of elastic tissue, and divided into lobes
mechanics of breathing
Mechanics of Breathing
  • Inhaling (active process) – Air moves in. Why?
  • Gases move from an area of high pressure to low pressure
  • During inspiration – diaphragm pulls down and lungs expand
  • When lungs expand, it increase the volume, which decrease the pressure inside lungs
Lung pressure is lower than outside pressure, so air moves in.
  • Exhaling (passive process) – breathing out
  • Diaphragm and muscles relax
  • Volume in lungs and chest cavity decreases, so now pressure inside increases.
  • Air moves out because pressure inside is HIGHER than OUTSIDE atmosphere.
  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood
  • Partial pressure of O2 higher in alveoli than blood so O2 diffuses into blood
  • Partial pressure of CO2 higher in blood than alveoli, so CO2 moves into alveoli in opposite direction and gets exhaled out
internal respiration
Internal respiration
  • Internal respiration is exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and tissues
  • Pressure of O2 higher in blood than tissues so O2 gets release into tissues.
  • Pressure of CO2 higher in tissue than in blood so CO2 diffused in opposite direction into blood.
  • CO2 Is a waste product.
  • O2 Is used in cellular respiration
3 muscle groups of inhalation
3 Muscle Groups of Inhalation
  • Diaphragm:
    • contraction draws air into lungs
    • 75% of normal air movement
  • External intercostals muscles:
    • assist inhalation
    • 25% of normal air movement
  • Accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs:
    • sternocleidomastiod
    • serratus anterior
    • pectoralis minor
    • scalene muscles
control of breathing
Control of Breathing
  • Breathing is regulated by the rhythmicity center in the medulla and pons in brain stem.
  • Carotid body is sensitive to level of oxygen.
  • medulla  rate and depth of breathing
factor effecting oxygenation
Factor effecting oxygenation:
  • Environment: high altitude increase respiratory rate.
  • Exercise: physical exercise lead to increase respiratory rate.
  • Life style: smoking, occupation.
  • Health status: disease of cardiovascular disease.
  • Narcotics: morphine decrease respiratory rate.
  • Stress and anxiety.
Respiratory alteration:
  • Hypoxia: is condition of insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body from the inspired gas to the tissue. Cerebral function can tolerate hypoxia for only 3 to 5 min before permanent damage.
Sign of hypoxia:
  • Rapid pulse.
  • Rapid shallow respiration.
  • Increase restlessness.
  • Flaring nares.
  • Cyanosis.
Hypoventilation: inadequate alveolar ventilation can lead to hypoxia may result from disease of respiratory muscle, drug, and anesthesia.
  • Hypercabnia: accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  • Cyanosis: bluish discoloration of the skin nails beds and mucosal membrane
altered breathing pattern
Altered breathing pattern:
  • Breathing pattern: rate, volume, rhythm, effort of respiration.
  • Normal respiration: (Eupnea) quite, rhythmic and effortless.
  • Tachypnea: rapid rate is seen with fevers, metabolic acidosis, pain and Hypercabnia.
  • Bradypnea: slow respiration rate, seen with narcotics and increase intracranial pressure from brain injury.
Hyperventilation: increase movement of air into and out of the lung.
  • Dyspnea: difficult of breathing.
  • Orthopnea: in ability to breathe except in an upright position
Obstructed air way:
  • Partially or completely in upper and lower respiratory tract.
  • Nursing history:
  • Respiratory problem, cardiac problem, life style, cough and sputum.
  • Physical assessment:
  • Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.
Diagnostic studies:
  • Sputum specimen, throat culture, arterial blood gases.
  • X- Ray examination.
  • Bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy.
  • Pulse oximetry: non invasive device measuring oxygen saturation.
Sputum collected for the following reason:
  • Culture and sensitivity: for identify a specific microorganism.
  • Cytology: to identify the origin, structure, function and pathology cell.
  • Acid bacillus: to identify the presence of tuberculosis.
nursing diagnosis
Nursing diagnosis:
  • Ineffective air way clearance related to accumulation of secretion.
  • Ineffective breathing pattern related to dyspnea.
  • Altered tissue perfusion related to decrease cardiac out put.
  • Anxiety related to ineffective air way clearance.
  • Positioning the client to allow to maximum chest expansion.
  • Encourage frequent changes in position.
  • Encourage ambulating.
  • Deep breathing exercise and coughing.
  • Hydration to maintain moisturing of respiratory tract mucous membrane and easily to move respiratory secretion and decease incidence of infection.
oxygen administration
Oxygen Administration
  • 1: Nasal Cannula.
  • 2: Face Mask.
  • 3: Oxygen Tent (for children).
  • 4: Venturi Mask.
  • 5: Non rebreather Mask.
  • 6: Partial Rebreather Mask.
  • 7: Endotracheal Tube (ETT).
the end
The End

Good Luck