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Oxygenation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Oxygenation Unit Eight Respiratory system Oxygen: a clear, odorless gas that constitutes approximately 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell. Respiration: is the process of gas exchange between individual and the environment.

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Unit Eight

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The process of respiration involves several components: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Pulmonary ventilation: the movement of air between the atmosphere and alveoli of the lungs.

  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and capillaries.

  • Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via blood to tissues.

  • Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between capillaries and cell.

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Functions of pulmonary system: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Ventilation: is the movement of air in and out of the lung.

  • Respiration: is the process of gas exchange.

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Manifestations of Altered Respiratory Function 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Cough

  • Sputum Production

  • Shortness of Breath

  • Chest Pain

  • Abnormal Breath Sounds

  • Accessory Muscle Use

  • Cyanosis

  • Clubbing fingers.

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Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system: 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • 1) Upper respiratory tract:

  • a) Nose – made of cartilage and bone and is designed to warm, moisten, and filter air as it comes into the system.

  • b) Pharynx – (throat) conducts food and air.

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Cont 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • C) Larynx – (voice box) connects the pharynx and the trachea; made of cartilage; contains vocal cords.

  • D) Epiglottis – flap of tissue that covers trachea; ensures food travels down the esophagus.

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Alveolar sac 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.


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Cont 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • 2) Lower Respiratory tract:

  • Trachea – (windpipe) tubular passage way for air; carries air to the lungs, C-shaped cartilage rings, divides at end.

  • Bronchi – pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs; have cartilage, lining is ciliated & secretes mucus.

  • Bronchioles – tiny tubes lacking cartilage and cilia; possess smooth muscle

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  • Alveoli 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell. – cup shaped structures at the end of the bronchioles that resemble bunches of grapes; are in direct contact with capillaries (gas exchange); covered with SURFACTANT that prevent alveoli from collapsing.

  • Lungs – paired, cone-shaped organs that are surrounded by a pleural membrane, made of elastic tissue, and divided into lobes

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Mechanics of Breathing 21 percent of the air we breathe for necessary all living cell.

  • Inhaling (active process) – Air moves in. Why?

  • Gases move from an area of high pressure to low pressure

  • During inspiration – diaphragm pulls down and lungs expand

  • When lungs expand, it increase the volume, which decrease the pressure inside lungs

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Respiration: in.

  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveoli and blood

  • Partial pressure of O2 higher in alveoli than blood so O2 diffuses into blood

  • Partial pressure of CO2 higher in blood than alveoli, so CO2 moves into alveoli in opposite direction and gets exhaled out

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Internal respiration in.

  • Internal respiration is exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and tissues

  • Pressure of O2 higher in blood than tissues so O2 gets release into tissues.

  • Pressure of CO2 higher in tissue than in blood so CO2 diffused in opposite direction into blood.

  • CO2 Is a waste product.

  • O2 Is used in cellular respiration

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3 Muscle Groups of Inhalation in.

  • Diaphragm:

    • contraction draws air into lungs

    • 75% of normal air movement

  • External intercostals muscles:

    • assist inhalation

    • 25% of normal air movement

  • Accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs:

    • sternocleidomastiod

    • serratus anterior

    • pectoralis minor

    • scalene muscles

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Control of Breathing in.

  • Breathing is regulated by the rhythmicity center in the medulla and pons in brain stem.

  • Carotid body is sensitive to level of oxygen.

  • medulla  rate and depth of breathing

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Factor effecting oxygenation in.:

  • Environment: high altitude increase respiratory rate.

  • Exercise: physical exercise lead to increase respiratory rate.

  • Life style: smoking, occupation.

  • Health status: disease of cardiovascular disease.

  • Narcotics: morphine decrease respiratory rate.

  • Stress and anxiety.

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  • Respiratory alteration: in.

  • Hypoxia: is condition of insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body from the inspired gas to the tissue. Cerebral function can tolerate hypoxia for only 3 to 5 min before permanent damage.

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Sign of hypoxia: in.

  • Rapid pulse.

  • Rapid shallow respiration.

  • Increase restlessness.

  • Flaring nares.

  • Cyanosis.

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Altered breathing pattern: hypoxia may result from disease of respiratory muscle, drug, and anesthesia.

  • Breathing pattern: rate, volume, rhythm, effort of respiration.

  • Normal respiration: (Eupnea) quite, rhythmic and effortless.

  • Tachypnea: rapid rate is seen with fevers, metabolic acidosis, pain and Hypercabnia.

  • Bradypnea: slow respiration rate, seen with narcotics and increase intracranial pressure from brain injury.

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Assessment the lung.

  • Nursing history:

  • Respiratory problem, cardiac problem, life style, cough and sputum.

  • Physical assessment:

  • Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

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  • Diagnostic studies: the lung.

  • Sputum specimen, throat culture, arterial blood gases.

  • X- Ray examination.

  • Bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy.

  • Pulse oximetry: non invasive device measuring oxygen saturation.

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  • Sputum collected for the following reason: the lung.

  • Culture and sensitivity: for identify a specific microorganism.

  • Cytology: to identify the origin, structure, function and pathology cell.

  • Acid bacillus: to identify the presence of tuberculosis.

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Nursing diagnosis: the lung.

  • Ineffective air way clearance related to accumulation of secretion.

  • Ineffective breathing pattern related to dyspnea.

  • Altered tissue perfusion related to decrease cardiac out put.

  • Anxiety related to ineffective air way clearance.

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  • Implementation: the lung.

  • Positioning the client to allow to maximum chest expansion.

  • Encourage frequent changes in position.

  • Encourage ambulating.

  • Deep breathing exercise and coughing.

  • Hydration to maintain moisturing of respiratory tract mucous membrane and easily to move respiratory secretion and decease incidence of infection.

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Oxygen Administration the lung.

  • 1: Nasal Cannula.

  • 2: Face Mask.

  • 3: Oxygen Tent (for children).

  • 4: Venturi Mask.

  • 5: Non rebreather Mask.

  • 6: Partial Rebreather Mask.

  • 7: Endotracheal Tube (ETT).

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The End the lung.

Good Luck