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Organic Chemistry Recognizing the 4 main classes of organic molecules. Organic Compounds An organic compound is any compound that contains atoms of the element carbon. Carbon has 2 electrons in its 1 st energy level and 4 electrons in its 2 nd energy level. Carbon

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organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Recognizing the 4 main classes of organic molecules.

organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • An organic compound is any compound that contains atoms of the element carbon.
  • Carbon has 2 electrons in its 1st energy level and 4 electrons in its 2nd energy level.
carbon
Carbon
  • Carbon’s 4 valence electrons form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
  • Carbon can share one electron in a single bond, two electrons in a double bond, and even three electrons (triple bond not shown)
isomers
Isomers
  • Butane has the chemical formula C4H10.
  • Chemical formulas describe the type and number of atoms.
  • Structural formulas describe the type, number and position of atoms. Butane’s structural formula is seen below.
  • Isomers have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas.
monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
  • Here are 3 examples of a monosaccharide
  • A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate.
  • These 3 elements are also isomers.
  • They all have the chemical formula C6H12O6.
  • The C:H:O ratio for a monosaccharide is 1:2:1.
glucose chain and ring
Glucose: Chain and Ring
  • Glucose (and other monosaccharide) chains can bend to form a ring.
disaccharide and polysaccharide
Disaccharide and Polysaccharide
  • One monosaccharide can join with another monosaccharide to create a disaccharide like sucrose.
  • A polysaccharide like cellulose (on the right) is many monosaccharides linked together.
glycerol and fats
Glycerol and Fats
  • Glycerol is a key component to many lipids.
  • Fat, or triglycerol, forms when a glycerol head connects with three fatty acid tails.
saturated and unsaturated fats
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
  • Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated.
  • Saturated fats contain only single bonds between carbons.
  • Unsaturated fats contain at least one double bond between carbons.
proteins and amino acids
Proteins and Amino Acids
  • Proteins are the third major family of organic compounds.
  • Proteins are made by linking amino acids together.
  • The side chain is a variable group.
  • There are 20 different variable groups that make 20 different types of amino acid.
peptide bonds and polymers
Peptide Bonds and Polymers
  • The bond linking two amino acids together is called a peptide bond.
  • Protein chains may contain hundreds, even thousands, of amino acids.
  • These long chains of organic molecules are called polymers.
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic acids are the final class of organic compound.
  • Nucleic acids are composed of individual nucleotides.
  • Each nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.