Norman Conquest 1066
The Origin of the Normans • Northern coast of France. • Northmen of the ninth and tenth century. • Understanding between Rollo of the Danes and Charles the Simple. • Originally of Scandinavian roots the Northmen became absorbed in French culture. • English and Normans became close.
The Origin of the Normans • 1002 Ǽthelred the Unready married a Norman wife. • 1042 Edward the Confessor became king of England.
1066 • Edward the Confessor died childless. • Choice of Successor. • Godwin the Earl of West Saxon. • Edward’s advisor. • Virtual ruler of England. • Harold. • Godwin’s son. • Day after Edward’s death elected king. • Did not go unchallenged.
1066 • William, the Duke of Normandy.
1066 • From birth overcame many difficulties. • Illegitimate birth. • Father and a tanner’s daughter. • Became Duke of Normandy at age six. • Many assassination attempts. • Devoted care of regents kept him alive. • While in early manhood had to deal with. • Rebellious barons, • powerful neighbors, • and the French king.
1066 • Earned the name William the Great.
1066 • After calling in a number of favors and sanctions from the Pope William landed, unopposed, at Pevensey in September.
Battle of Hastings • Harold was off fighting another claimant to the throne in the North. • Tostig, Harold’s brother returning from exile. • Many of Harold’s troops were forced to leave due to the harvest. • Harold called on Earls in Mercia and Northumbria, but they hung back. • Harold drew his forces on at hill at Senlac near Hastings.
Battle of Hastings • Harold had controlled the battle until a feigned retreat by William gave the Normans the advantage. • Harold was shot in the eye with an arrow dying instantly. • Two of Harold’s brothers were killed. • The British were leaderless. • Normans won the battle.
Battle of Hastings • Normans burnt and pillaged until the citizens of London decided not to resist any longer. • William was named King.
Norman Settlement • Many of the English higher class had been killed or treated as traitors. • At first William only accepted in the Southeast. • Rebellions in the southwest, west and north.
Norman Settlement • Williams embarked on many campaigns. • Often he was ruthless to make his point. • As a result English nobility was completely wiped out. • 1072 – only one of the twelve earls in England were English (he was executed in 1076). • Norman influence seeped into all walks of life. • The two archbishops were Normans. • The abbots slowly changed over to Normans. • In 1075, thirteen of twenty-five Abbots were English. • In 1087, three of twenty-five Abbots were English. • William’s castles were garrisoned troops. • Richard I surrounded himself with foreign soldiers.
Creation of the Language • Use of French by the Upper Class. • Ruling class continued to use French. • 200 years after the Norman conquest.
Creation of the Language • French soldiers learned English as a matter of need. • As late as the 13th century the kings of England were also the Dukes of Normandy. • William left Normandy to his eldest son and England to his second son William. • Henry I reunited the two lands. • Henry II enlarged his holdings in both areas.
Creation of the Language • Most of William and his heirs spent more time in France than England. • Edward IV was the first king to have an English wife (1460s).
Creation of the Language • English became the language of the lower class. • While resentment existed, relations seemed “calm.” • At age 43 William the Conqueror attempted to learn English. • Better rule and understand the people and courts. • Most literature produced was French. • Upper-class spoke French. • Literature is a leisure activity.
Creation of the Language • Over time the language barrier became blurred. • English would desire to speak French. • Normans had to speak English out of necessity. • Written English survived in monasteries. • “Middle class” were requires to be fluent in both English and French.
Links • http://www.essentialnormanconquest.com • http://www.sjolander.com/viking/museum/bt/bt.htm • http://www.battle1066.com/intro.shtml
Political • Breaking up / replacing Earldoms • Replacing religious powers
Political • King’s Court Central Figure • previous British Earls more or less independent states • Strict feudal system • Organization • Records
Economic, Political, Religious • Closer to the continent • Commercial • Trade • Resources • Political • France • Allies • Religious • Roman Catholic Church • Norman Catholic Church
Social and Cultural • Introduction to cultural influence of the continent • Normans • Intellectual; readiness / mobile spirit • self control / vigorous aggression • Zest for refined life • light hearted song • fancy clothes • beautiful manuscripts • graceful architecture • Chivalry • linked to feudal obligations
Social and Cultural • romantic interest in woman • reverence of the Virgin Mary • Closer Relations with people, government, and church • Rome / France / Papacy • Superior Architecture • Replaced Romanesque with Gothic • Founding of Oxford and Cambridge • Broaden intellectual horizons • Literary and cultural centers of the country
Social and Cultural • Involvement in the Crusades • More contact with the content and the orient • Fostered medieval romance
Medieval Romance • Derived from French / Latin / Latin folklore • Essential features • Seven
Medieval Romance • 1) Lack of verisimilitude (reality) • Exaggeration of Human voice • Idealization of virtues • Ideality of adventures • Passion for • Strong • Marvelous • Impossible • Improbable
Medieval Romance • 2) Emphasis of supreme devotion to the fair lady • Sentimental woman worship • Courtly love • 3) Past scenes of manners / morals / chivalry • 4) Presences of a quest • 5) Religions / supernatural appearances • 6) Characters are typical / not individual • 7) Lack of consecutiveness
Re-establishment of English • 1200 – 1500
Loss of Normandy • Separation of French and English nobility • 1204 – 1205 • King of France took back land of barons who held abodes in England • Reaction to Foreigners • Henry III marriage to Elanor of Provence • Gave her relatives many titles • During his reign England was “eaten up” by strangers • Great deal of damage to the language • “England for the English”
13th Century • Upper class spoke French • French became the language for • Social custom • Business • Administrative convention • English made steady advances
14th Century • English worked its way into legal and church writings • Henry III understood English • Edward I was fluent in English • 1272 - 1307 • French was losing its hold
100 Years War 1337 - 1453 • King Vassal thing came to a head • Henry V • Joan of Arch • Complicated Political war • Bottom Line • The enemy spoke French
Rise of the Middle Class • The importance of a language is determined by the importance of the people who speak it. • 1348 – 1st case of a disease • Highly contagious • Fatal • With 2 /3 days either dead or better • Generally dead • 40 % Parish Clergy dead • Black Death
Black Death • Most epidemics – rich are safer than the poor • A lot of laborers died • Laborers were in demand • Wages rise • Stature rise • Peasant revolt of 1381 • Economic importance of the middle class • 200 towns of 1000 to 5000 people
London / York • Large Cities • Self government • Communities • Elections • Assessing taxes • King in lump sums • Trials • Et. Al.
1362 • English in Law Courts • English Schools • 1403 • Richard II – power usurped by Henry IV (Bolingbrook) • Hotspur (Henry V) • French refused to acknowledge Henry’s claim to the throne