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Morality. The fact that aspirin has been used for pain treatment, to reduce morality due to heart attacks, and can possibly reduce the risks of infection is incredible, -- Ambrose Cheung as in a press release. Academe: An ancient school where morality and philosophy were taught.

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slide1

Morality

The fact that aspirin has been used for pain treatment, to reduce morality due to heart attacks, and can possibly reduce the risks of infection is incredible,

-- Ambrose Cheung as in a press release

Academe: An ancient school where morality and philosophy were taught.

Academy: A modern school where football is taught.

-- Ambrose Bierce (devil’s dictionary)

slide2

What is Morality

Morality: conformity to ideals of right human conduct

Cultural Differences, Religious Differences, Moral Relativism?

slide3

Moral Development

1) Behavioral Approach

2) Psychoanalytic Approach

3) Piagetian Approach

4) Kohlbergian Approach

slide4

Behavioral Approach

Morality is learned based on what we have been punished/rewarded for.

Measures honesty and knowledge of moral rules

slide5

Measures of Morality

What is the right thing to do or say if someone steals your lunch:

a) Steal another lunch to even it up

b) Report it to the teacher

c) Cry about it

d) Say nothing about it

slide6

Measures of Morality

On the way to school Harold stopped to help an old woman shovel the snow from her sidewalk

__ Good Scout __ What of it?

__ Time wasted __ Why shouldn’t he?

__ Splendid thing __ Goody-goody

slide7

Measures of Morality

While the teacher was out of the room Ruth took a few pieces of candy from her desk

__ A fine idea __ Crooked

__ What of it? __ Clever Stunt

__ The mean thing __ Served the teacher right

slide8

Measures of Morality

  • Choose from “Do not punish”, “Very lightly”, “Lightly”, “Rather strictly”, “Hard”, “Very Severely”.
  • Robbing a house then burning it.
  • Pretending not to hear when someone calls.
  • Refusing to help make toys for sick children.
  • Taking a few apples from a fruit stand.
slide9

Psychoanalytic Approach

Internalized Moral Values

Process of Identification

Development of Guilt

Tests involve projection and projective tests.

slide10

Measures of Morality

One day Ted’s mother goes visiting a friend of hers in another town. Now Ted is all alone with nothing to do. He thinks of the boxes in the top of his mother’s closet. She has told him never to take down the boxes. He knows his mother won’t be home till suppertime. Ted climbs up and takes down the boxes. YOU FINISH THE STORY.

slide11

Piagetian Approach

Two stages of morality

Heteronomous

Consequences

Morality by Sanctions

Immanent Justice

Punishment as Retribution

Autonomous

Intentions

Morality Independent of Sanctions

Mature Causal Understanding

Punishment for Restitution

slide12

Measures of Morality

  • There was a little boy who thought it would be fun to play with his father’s pen and inkwell. While playing with the pen, he made a little blot on the tablecloth
  • There was a little boy who noticed his father’s inkwell was empty. He thought of filling the inkwell so as to help his father, but while he was opening the bottle, he made a big blot on the tablecloth.
slide13

Measures of Morality

Once there were two children who were stealing apples in an orchard. Suddenly a policeman comes along and the children run away. One of them is caught. The other one, going home by a roundabout way, crosses a river on a rotten bridge and falls into the water. Now what do you think: if he had not stolen the apples, and had crossed the river on the rotten bridge all the same, would he also have fallen into the water?

slide14

Kohlberg

PREMORAL

Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience

Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist

CONVENIENCE

Stage 3: Interpersonal Concodance

Stage 4: Law and Order orientation

PRINCIPLED

Stage 5: Social Contract

Stage 6: Universal Ethical

slide15

Measures of Morality

A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. The woman’s husband went to everyone he knew to borrow money, but could only get half the cost of the drug. The druggist refused to sell for less, and the man couldn’t get a loan. Should the husband steal the drug?

slide16

Kohlberg

  • Large Cultural Differences
  • Large Gender Differences
  • Alternate Account
  • 1  2  3  4,5,6
slide18

The schedule

  • Conformity
  • Obedience
  • Social Rolls
  • Altruism
slide19

Conformity

Asch Study:

Naïve participant

6 to 8 confederates

Line length recognition judgments

slide21

Conformity

Asch Study:

slide22

Conformity

Asch Study: Original study 76% conform!

slide23

Conformity

Factors influencing conformity

Cohesiveness (Crandall, 1988)

Binge eating

Group size (Gerard et al, 1968)

Magical number 3

Social Norms (Cialdini et al, 1991)

Litter study

slide24

Obedience

Stanley Milgram’s studies:

slide25

Obedience

Stanley Milgram’s studies:

Moderate: Victim complains, 100%

Strong: Complains of heart condition, 99%

Very Strong: Pounds on the wall in protest, 91%

Intense: Pounds again, stops giving answers, 75%

Extreme Intensity: 68%

Danger; severe shock: 65%

XXX 450 volts: 65% go all the way

slide26

Obedience

Stanley Milgram’s studies:

  • Run down office building vs. Yale campus
  • Children vs. adults
  • Male vs. female
  • Victim begs to be released, appeals to morality
  • Participant has to force down victim’s hand onto shock plate (30% go all the way)
  • Many different countries and cultures.
slide27

Social Roles

Stanford Prison Experiment

slide28

Social Roles

Stanford Prison Experiment

Stanford students randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards.

Guards were abusing prisoners by day 2.

slide29

Altruism

Bystander Nonintervention

slide30

Altruism

Bystander Nonintervention

slide31

Altruism

Diffusion of Responsibility

I er I think I need er if if could er er somebody er er help because I er I’m er h-h-having a a a real problem er right now and and I er if somebody could help me out it would er er s-s-sure be good… (choking sounds)… I’m gonna die er er I’m gonna die er help er er seizure (more choking, goes quiet).

slide32

Altruism

Diffusion of Responsibility

Time to help

% help

slide33

Other Issues

  • Emotion (Crimes of Passion)
  • Psychopathology (e.g. Sociopaths)
  • Altered States of Consciousness
  • Teaching Morality
  • Other situational variables (poverty)
slide34

Homework

  • The Devil’s Advocate
  • http://www.parentingbookmark.com/pages/articleBMI05.htm
  • http://www.geocities.com/Broadway/Lobby/3479/clyrics13.html (if you can find a way to listen to the song, do that)
  • Neuremberg Trials (link by email)
slide35

Homework II

  • Das Experiment
  • Prisonexp.org
  • http://www.stanford.edu/dept/DoR/hs/
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0762136.html