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(left) Francis Bacon (British, 1909-1992), Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef , 1954, British Existential Figuration; (right) Eduardo Paolozzi (British, 1924-2005), Real Gold , collage, 14 x 19”, 1950, British Pop.

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(left) Francis Bacon (British, 1909-1992), Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef, 1954, British Existential Figuration; (right) Eduardo Paolozzi (British, 1924-2005), Real Gold, collage, 14 x 19”, 1950, British Pop


The Blitz: FromSeptember 7 1940 through May 1941, the German Luftwaffe bombed British cities, especially London, almost nightly. Here London fire fighters extinguish flames following an air raid during. More than 43,000 deaths and 1,400,000 people made homeless


(left) Eduardo Paolozzi, Its a Psychological Fact That Pleasure Helps Your Disposition, 1948, collage. Affirmative or adversarial (avant-garde) posture? Shown in his influential 1952 “Bunk” lecture that marks the beginning of British Pop. “Bunk” is from Henry Ford: “history is more or less bunk….we want to live in the present.” (right) Hannah Höch, The Beautiful Girl, collage (photomontage), 1919, Berlin DadaAdversarial posture toward commercial culture


(left) Richard Hamilton, Just What is it That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing? Collage (photomontage), 10 x 9”, 1956, British Pop



The Independent Group’s “This is Tomorrow” exhibition, 3 installation views, 1956, Whitechapel Gallery (Institute of Contemporary Art) London


Richard Hamilton, (left) Towards a Definitive Statement on the Coming Trends in Men's Wear and Accessories (a) Together Let Us Explore the Stars 1962; (right) $he, 1958-61, both oil & collage on canvas, British Pop


(left) Hamilton, The Large Glass or The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even, 1963, an exact copy and homage to (right) Marcel Duchamp, The Large Glass or The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even 1915-23; (center) Photo of Duchamp by Hamilton, c. 1968


HANS NAMUTH, 25th Anniversary of Leo Castelli Gallery, The Odeon, New York 1982Standing left – right: Ellsworth Kelly, Dan Flavin, Joseph Kosuth, Richard Serra, Lawerence Weiner, Nassos Daphnis, Jasper Johns, Claes Oldenberg, Salvatore Scarpitta, Richard Artschwager, Mia Westerlund Roosen, Cletus Johnson, and Keith SonnierSeated left – right: Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Leo Castelli, Ed Ruscha, James Rosenquist, and Robert Barry


Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), Bonwit Teller window decor, NY, April 1961; (left) Dick Tracy, 1960, casein and crayon, 48” high;A Boy for Meg, 1962oil on canvas, 72” high


Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962, acrylic on canvas, 32 works, each 20x16”Pop Art; (lower right) Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 1962. Warhol’s first gallery show.


Jasper Johns (American, b.1930), Painted Bronze, hand painted cast bronze, 1960, Proto-Pop (Neo-Dada); (right) Warhol, Campbell Soup Can, 1968, Pop Art


Andy Warhol and Gerard Malanga silk-screening in The Factory, 1967, located on the fifth floor at 231 East 47th Street, in Midtown Manhattan. The Factory moved to 33 Union Square West in 1967.


(right) Warholstars group portrait by Gerard Malanga, 1968(?); (left) film still and poster for Warhol's film Exploding Plastic Inevitable, 1966, with the Velvet Underground. The Andy Warhol Museum owns 273 Warhol films and almost 4,000 videotapes.

“If you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the

surface of my paintings and films and me, and there I am…

There’s nothing behind it.” - Andy Warhol


Warhol, (left) Gold Marilyn Monroe, 1962, acrylic, silkscreen and oil on canvas; (right) Marilyn, 1962. Series followed Monroe’s (probable) suicide in August 1962.

warhol left jackie the week that was 1963 right suicide 1963 acrylic and silkscreen 6 ft high
Warhol, (left) Jackie, The Week That Was, 1963 (right) Suicide 1963, Acrylic and silkscreen, 6 ft high
warhol five deaths eleven times in orange synthetic polymer paint silk screened on canvas 1963
Warhol, Five Deaths Eleven Times in Orange, synthetic polymer paint, silk-screened on canvas, 1963

Warhol, (left) Lavender Disaster, 1971; (right top and below) Electric Chair, 1971, screenprints. “Everything I do is connected with death.” (Warhol, 1978)

andy warhol brillo box 1964 acrylic and silkscreen on plywood 17 x 17 x 15 in
Andy Warhol, Brillo Box, 1964, acrylic and silkscreen on plywood, 17 x 17 x 15 in

“Greenberg’s narrative … comes to an end with Pop … It came to an end when art came to an end, when art, as it were, recognized there was no special way a work of art had to be.” - Arthur Danto (1964)

After the End of Art, 1997

“Is an endless playing with the definition of art all that art now has to offer?”

- Charles Harrison

“Conceptual Art” (Themes)

At the Tate Modern: the conundrum


Roy Lichtenstein’s educational background: (left) Reginald Marsh (Lichtenstein’s teacher at the Art Students’ League, NYC), Why Not Take the “L”?, oil on canvas, 1930 (right) Flash Lab, Ohio State, where Lichtenstein studied 1942-44

roy lichtenstein girl with a ball 1960 compare with andy warhol dick tracy 1960 new york pop art
Roy Lichtenstein, Girl With a Ball, 1960 compare with Andy Warhol, Dick Tracy, 1960, New York Pop Art
Roy Lichtenstein, WAAM! 1963, Magna on canvas, 2 panels; 68 x 166 inches overall; source, Men at War comic book, 1962

“Lichtenstein was not painting things but signs of things.” Fineberg

http www nytimes com indexes 2008 03 09 style t index html pagename 09turnpage


James Rosenquist,President Elect, oil on masonite, 12 feet wide, 1960-1 (New York Pop Art); (right) mockup for painting and (below) artist in studio“I’m interested in contemporary fission – the flick of chrome, reflections, rapid associations, quick flashes of light. Big-bang! Bing-bang! I don’t do anecdotes; I accumulate experiences.”


Rosenquist,(left) right & left halves of F-111, installation, oil on canvas and aluminum, 10 by 86 feet, 1964-5, The Museum of Modern Art, NY

Marisol, (left) Bob Hope, wood (carved, assembled, pencil and paint), 1967; (right) Hugh Hefner, 1967, wood, paint, mixed media

Marisol Escobar (Marisol Escobar) (American, born France, 1930, to Venezuelan parents) The Cocktail Party, an assemblage of 15 free-standing figures and wall panel with carved and painted wood, cloth, plastic, shoes, jewelry, mirror, television set and other accessories, 1965-6


Claes Oldenburg, Snapshots from the City, performance with first wife, Pat Muschinski, at Judson Gallery, Judson Memorial Church, New York. February 29, March 1-2, 1960. Performance / Happening at Oldenburg’s “Ray Gun Theater”(right) The Street installation 1960


Claes Oldenburg, The Store, Dec. 1, 1961 - Jan. 31, 1962, Ray Gun Mfg. Co., 107 East Second Street, New York. Roast Beef, 1961, inside studio/store (with artist), view looking out, poster, Green Gallery sponsor.

“I am for an art that is political-erotic-mystical, that does

something other than sit on its ass in a museum”


Claes Oldenburg (American, born Sweden, 1929). Pastry Case, I. 1961-62. Painted plaster sculptures on ceramic plates, metal platter and cups in glass-and-metal case, 21 x 30 x 15," New York Pop Art "I make my work out of my everyday experiences, which I find as perplexing and extraordinary as can be.“ Oldenburg, 1960


Claes Oldenburg. (American, born Sweden, 1929). Green Gallery Installation (2 views), 1962; Floor Cake (right) 1962. Synthetic polymer paint and latex on canvas filled with foam rubber and cardboard boxes, 58 3/8" x 9' 6 1/4" x 58 3/8“. Pop Art

oldenburg giant lipstick erect left and limp center yale university 1969 anti vietnam war
Oldenburg, Giant Lipstick, erect (left) and limp (center), Yale University, 1969. Anti-Vietnam war

Claes Oldenburg, Clothespin, 1976, Cor-Ten and stainless steels, 45 ft. x 12 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 6 in., Centre Square Plaza, Philadelphia. Scale. Carnivalesque humor in public art, as well as inside art world joke in allusion to Brancusi’s 1909 Kiss (above).


Wayne Thiebaud (US, b. 1920), Five Hot Dogs, 1961, o/c, 18 x 24 in, Whitney MAA Thiebaud earned a BA degree from Sacramento State College in 1941 an M.A. degree in 1952.


Edward Kienholz (US, 1927-1994), Back Seat Dodge ’38 (two views), 1964, tableau with truncated Dodge and mixed materials (plaster casts, beer bottles, chicken wire, artificial grass, etc.) Los Angeles Funk

Kienholz (left) The Wait, 1964-65, tableau, life size(right) The Beanery, 1965, mixed media, tableau, life size

Kienholz, Ed, The State Hospital (INTERIOR), 1966, Tableau: plaster casts, fiberglass, hospital beds, bedpan, hospital table, goldfish bowls, live black fish, lighted neon tubing, steel hardware, wood, paint 96 x 144 x 120 in. Moderna Museet, Stockholm


Kienholz, Ed, The State Hospital (EXTERIOR), 1966, Tableau: plaster casts, fiberglass, hospital beds, bedpan, hospital table, goldfish bowls, live black fish, lighted neon tubing, steel hardware, wood, paint 96 x 144 x 120 in. Moderna Museet, Stockholm

betye saar the liberation of aunt jemima mixed media assemblage 1972
Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, mixed-media assemblage, 1972

Joseph Cornell,Medici Boy

Robert Arneson, John with Art, 1964, glazed ceramic with polychorme epoxy, life size, Seattle Art Museum gift of Manuel Neri

Peter Saul, Icebox Number 7, 1963; oil on canvas, 74 1/2 x 63 inches (188 x 160 cm) For NY Times 2008 article on Peter Saul with more images, go to:


New RealistsTitle of seminal exhibition at Sidney Janis Gallery in New York in 1962Called “Slice of Cake School” (Time magazine)Included American artists Warhol, Oldenburg, Lichtenstein and others and “Les Nouveaux Réalists,” French “New Realists”


Yves Klein (Nouveau Réalisme [New Realism] French,1928-1962) (Monochrome Blue) (IKB [International Klein Blue] 3), 1960, pigment & resin on canvas on wood, c.6’ H; Compare Russian monochromatic abstraction (right)Kasimir Malevich, Black Suprematist Square, 1914-15; (below) compare exhibitions: 1960 Klein and (right) 1915 Malevich

Klein produced 194 monochromes

between 1955-1961


Yves Klein, Anthropométrie performances, Paris, 1960Anthropométrie de l’époch bleue (Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch), pure pigment in resin on paper mounted on canvas, 1960, Nouveau Réalisme


Yves Klein, (left) Le Vide (The Void), Iris Clert Galérie, Paris 1958, gallery installation; (right) Leap into the Void, March 9, 1960, New Realism, altered photograph


Daniel Spoerri (Swiss, born Rumania, 1922), Hungarian Meal, Trap Picture, 1963, assemblage: metal, glass, porcelain, fabric on painted chipboard, 103 cm highIn the gallery, which was converted into a restaurant, dishes prepared by Spoerri - who also happened to be a great cook - were served by famous critics. Once they had eaten their fill, the guests constructed their own Trap-pictures by affixing the leftovers of their meal.

Called “Eat Art” by Spoerri


Christo, Nouveau Réalisme (New Realism), Wall of Barrels, Iron Curtain, 1961-2, 240 oil barrels, 168” high; (right) WrappedWheelbarrow, 1963


Niki de Saint-Phalle, (New Realist,French-American, 1930-2002), Crucifixion, 1963, Fabric pasted over an armature of wire mesh and various affixed objects, 100” high; (right) Jean Dubuffet (Postwar Existentialism, French 1901-1985) A Tree of Fluids, 1950


“In 1961 I shot at: Daddy, all the men, small men, tall men, important men, fat men, men, my brother, society, church, school, my family, my mother, all the men, Daddy, myself, men again.” Niki de Saint-Phalle

“Shoot” paintings


Niki de Saint-Phalle, Hon ("She" in Swedish), 1966. 6 ton colossus (82'/20'/30'). With Jean Tinguely and Per Olaf Ultvedt as a temporary installation at the Moderne Museet, Stockholm. One of a series of “Nana” sculptures

The Carnivalesque


Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely, Pompidou Center kinetic fountain from the top floor of the Beaubourg art museum and (left) pavement level


Jean Tinguely (Nouveau Réalist, Swiss 1925-91), Homage to New York, Kinetic event-sculpture that self-destroyed in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art. New York, March 17, 1960


Tinguely’s Nouveau Réalisme Sources: Dada: Marcel Duchamp, (left) Bicycle Wheel (readymade), 1913; (right) Duchamp, Rotorelief, rotative plaques, glass, metal, motor, 1920, kinetic art; (below left ) Francis Picabia (French, 1879-1953), Amorous Parade, 1919

Tinguely’s Homage to New York



Gerhard Richter and Konrad Lueg, Living With Pop, 1963: a performance of “Capitalist Realism.” The Düsseldorf artist group (Richter, Lueg, and Sigmar Polke) mounted an installation of objects in a local furniture store, installing themselves with the commodities for sale (“living sculptures”) as a demonstration of "Capitalist Realism." To what earlier, state-supported realisms was "Capitalist Realism" responding?

Richard Hamilton, 1956


(left) Richter and Sigmar Polke, 1965, from Richter/Polke exhibition catalogue(right) Richter, 1998, from Gerhard Richter: 40 Years of Painting exhibition cat.


Gerhard Richter (b. Dresden, 1932), [Nazi officer] Uncle Rudi, 1965, oil on canvas(right) Administrative Building, 1964, Oil on canvas, 38 1/4 x 59 “photo sources – family snapshot and encyclopedia“I believe in nothing” [Richter]

“…photography. . .had no style, no composition,

no judgment. It freed me from personal experience.

That’s why I wanted to have it – not to use it as a

means to painting but to use painting as a means

to photography. - Richter


Richter, Aunt Marianne, oil on canvas, 1965, 47 x 51 infrom a photograph of Richter as a baby with Aunt Marianne“Whenever I behaved badly I was told you will become like crazy Marianne.”

Richter, Phantom Interceptors, 1964, oil on canvas, 55" x 6' 3“(right) Alpha Romeo (With Text), 1965, oil on canvas, 60 x 59”

What is grisaille?


(left) Richter, Abstract Painting, 1976, oil on canvas, 26 x 23 in.“After the gray paintings, after the dogma of ‘fundamental painting’ whose purist and moralizing aspects fascinated me to a degree bordering on self-denial, all I could do was start all over again. This was the beginning of the first color sketches.”

Compare concept of Rauschenberg’s

Factum I & II, 1957


Richter, October 18, 1977: Baader-Meinhof series, Confrontation 1 and 2, 1988, oil on canvas, all 45” H. The subject is Ulrike Meinhof, the Baader-Meinhof group - or gang – part of the Red Army Faction, was the first of the Marxist terror groups that killed bankers, politicians and bystanders across 70s Europe.

final paintings in richter s october 18 1977 baader meinhof series titled tote 1 2 and 3
Final paintings in Richter’s October 18, 1977Baader-Meinhof series titled Tote 1, 2, and 3

(left) Richter, Betty (Richter’s daughter), 1988, oil on canvas, 40 x 23“(right) Richter, October 18, 1977: Baader-Meinhof series, Confrontation 1, 1988. Painted the same year.


(left) Richter, Iceberg in Fog, 1982, oil on canvas, 27 x 39 incompare (left) Caspar David Friedrich (German Romantic Painter, 1774-1840)(top) Monk by the Sea (1809) and (bottom) Polar Sea (1823)


Richter, Betty, 1988, oil on canvas, 40 x 23“ compare (right) Untitled, 1987“Painting is the form of the picture, you might say. The picture is the depiction, and painting is the technique for shattering it.”

Sigmar Polke (German, b. 1941), Modern Art, 1968(right) Polke, Lovers II, 1965, oil and enamel on canvas, 6 ft 3 in x 55 in
Sigmar Polke, Bunnies, 1966, acrylic on linen, 58 x 39” A “raster” painting (commercial printing process showing “benday” dots)

Lichtenstein, cover

Of Newsweek, 1966

Warhol, "Marilyn," 1964


Polke, The Spirits That Lend Strength Are Invisible III (Nickel/Neusilber), 1988, nickel and artificial resin on canvas, 157in. x 118 in. Collection SFMOMA

Sigmar Polke, Mrs. Autumn and Her Two Daughters, 1991, artificial resin and acrylic on synthetic fabric, 9ft 10in x 16ft 5in