indian strategy for management of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors s basu india l.
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Indian strategy for management of spent fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors S.Basu, India . Energy scenario in India. At the present growth rate, Indian economy will double every eight years Growing population Reaching well above per capita world average consumption .

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Presentation Transcript
energy scenario in india
Energy scenario in India
  • At the present growth rate, Indian economy will double every eight years
  • Growing population
  • Reaching well above per capita world average consumption
slide3

Nuclear energy is to meet 25% to 50% of the total energy requirement

  • Nuclear capacity will reach 20 Gwe and more by 2020
  • 200 Gwe and above generation capacity is targeted by the middle of the century
slide4

Large nuclear energy requirement

  • Limited Uranium resources
spent fuel is a resource for india
Spent Fuel is a resource for India

All spent fuel will be reprocessed

Storage of spent fuel is an interim activity

slide7

I Stage : Pressurized Heavy water reactor with Natural Uranium fuel

Interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent reprocessing

ii stage u pu based fast breeder reactors based on mox metallic fuel
II Stage : U-Pu based Fast Breeder Reactors based on MOX/metallic fuel

Interim storage of spent fuel in reactor/water pool & Reprocessing in fast reactor fuel cycle facilities.

iii stage th pu and th u233 mox based reactors
III Stage: Th-Pu and Th-U233 (MOX) based reactors

Interim storage of above fuel and subsequent reprocessing of

Th-Pu-U233 or Th-U233 fuel

fast reactor fuel reprocessing
Fast reactor fuel reprocessing
  • Reprocessing of short cooled fuel
  • Aqueous reprocessing of oxide fuel
  • Aqueous/Pyro chemical reprocessing for metallic fuel
fast reactor spent fuel storage
Fast reactor spent fuel storage
  • Initial cooling in reactor
  • Sodium removal
  • Interim Storage in water pools
thorium fuel reprocessing
Thorium fuel reprocessing
  • Three component reprocessing, Th – Pu –U233
  • Two component reprocessing, Th – U233
  • U232 related issues
  • Thorium storage
slide13

Recent nuclear agreements opened up possibility for

LWRs of various types based on enriched Uranium

Interim storage and subsequent reprocessing of oxide spent fuel ( High burnup fuel)

pressurized heavy water fuel using recycled uranium oxide
Pressurized Heavy Water Fuel using Recycled Uranium (oxide)

Uranium in spent fuel of LWRs is slightly enriched. Suitable for use in PHWRs.

Interim storage and Reprocessing of Recycled Uranium based Spent Fuel

slide15

Other impact of nuclear agreement is availability of Natural Uranium from foreign sources

PHWRs based on natural Uranium obtained from foreign sources

Interim storage and reprocessing of spent fuel

spent fuel storage pool
Spent fuel storage pool
  • Intermediate storage
  • Adequate cooling period
  • Water cooled
  • Buffer for the period between discharge from reactor and reprocessing
storage period for spent fuel
Storage period for spent fuel
  • Longer storage of spent fuel simplifies the reprocessing and waste management systems
  • Shorter storage period results in earlier availability of Pu for power generation
  • Early reprocessing would require storage of high level waste for longer period before vitrification
reprocessing requirements
Reprocessing requirements
  • Natural Uranium (Indian) - PHWR
  • Natural Uranium (Foreign) - PHWR
  • Enriched Uranium- LWRs of four types
  • Recycled Uranium(LWR fuel repro.) - PHWR
  • Fast reactor MOX fuel
  • Fast reactor metallic fuel
  • Th – Pu – U233 fuel
  • Th – U233 fuel
waste management
Waste management

High level waste is vitrified and stored in interim storage facility

Cesium and Strontium recovery is planned

spent fuel transportation
Spent fuel Transportation

All transportation will be through land routes using transfer casks and trailers meeting all regulatory requirements

For Coastal sites Reprocessing facilities are co-located with power reactors . This will minimize fuel transportation in public domain

larger size integrated nuclear recycle plant
Larger size Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

* So far smaller size reprocessing plants were co-located with waste management and fuel fabrication facilities

* Future plants will be based on integrated facility for reprocessing and waste management. Fuel fabrication facility will also be integrated in most cases

challenges construction and operation of larger size plants
Challenges : construction and operation of larger size plants
  • Extension of available technology; for low and high burn up fuel
  • Use of newer equipment
  • Cost reduction
reprocessing and fabrication of metallic fuel
Reprocessing and fabrication of metallic fuel
  • Pyro – chemical technique for reprocessing
  • Electro reduction technique for conversion from oxide to metal
  • Metallic fuel fabrication
  • Commercial scale operation
present activities in the back end
Present activities in the back end
  • Operation of small size plants
  • Construction and commissioning of two more reprocessing plants and associated facilities (augmentation activities)
  • Design and construction two large size integrated plants, one for PHWR and the other for fast reactor spent fuel
  • Plant designs aim at significant reduction in discharges & improvement in safety & security
safety guides
Safety Guides
  • Comprehensive safety codes and guides are required for the back end of fuel cycle
  • Should cover reprocessing ,waste management and repository
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Uranium Resource constraint ; Countries aiming large and sustained nuclear generation has to opt for closed fuel cycle
  • Waste volume; Significant reduction in waste volume is possible only through closed fuel cycle route
  • Indian nuclear recycle programme is poised for major expansion, matching the enhanced power generation plans