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Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions. John Freiderich NCSS 07/27/2006. Introduction. Accumulated Spent Nuclear Fuel Over 40k metric tons Spallation Transmutation. Spallation. What does this entail? Incident Particle Target Nucleus Goal: Generate Neutrons.

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transmutation of spent nuclear fuel utilizing spallation reactions

Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions

John Freiderich

NCSS

07/27/2006

introduction
Introduction
  • Accumulated Spent Nuclear Fuel
    • Over 40k metric tons
  • Spallation
  • Transmutation
spallation
Spallation
  • What does this entail?
    • Incident Particle
    • Target Nucleus
  • Goal: Generate Neutrons
cross section
Cross-Section
  • Incident Particles
    • Charged Particles
    • Uncharged Particles
two step nucleon production
Two-Step Nucleon Production
  • First Step
    • Penetration
    • Intranuclear Cascade
  • Second Step
    • De-excitation of Compound Nucleus
      • Evaporation of nucleons and light nuclei
      • Fission
spent nuclear fuel
Spent Nuclear Fuel
  • Prediction: Enrico Fermi (1940s)
  • Today
    • Criticality Concerns
    • Decay Heat Management
    • Radioactive Waste Handling
  • Seen as Primary Problems
products of nuclear waste
Products of Nuclear Waste
  • Radio nuclides
    • 90Sr, 137Cs
    • 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 129I, 135Cs and 99Tc
  • Mobility & Half-lives
transmutation
Transmutation
  • Transforming the Nucleus
    • Neutron Absorption
neutron absorption
Neutron Absorption
  • Induced through Sub-critical System
    • Accelerator-Driven System (ADS)
    • External Source of Neutrons
chemical reprocessing
Chemical Reprocessing
  • Aqueous Separations
    • Remove 238U and some other fission products
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Exponential growth in Energy Demand
  • Spallation provides neutron source
references
References
  • [1]Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H. Basic nuclear data for nuclear waste transmutation and radioactive nuclear beam production. Nucl. Phys. A.2004, 746, 281c-287c.
  • [2]Bernas, M.; Armbruster, P.; Benlliure, J.; Boudard, A.; Casarejos, E.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Pereira, J.; Rejmund, F.; Ricciardi, M.-V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stéphan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Volant, C. Very heavy fission fragments produced in the spallation reaction 238U+p at 1 A GeV. Nucl. Phys. A. 2005,765, 197-210.
  • [3]Friedlander, G.; Kennedy, J. W.; Macias, E. S.; Miller, J. M. Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 3rd edition; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1981; 171-176.
  • [4](a) Gudowski, W. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste. Nucl. Phys. A.2000, 663&664, 169c-182c. (b) Accelerator-driven Transmutation Projects. The Importance of Nuclear Physics Research for Waste Transmutation. Nucl. Phys. A.1999, 654, 436c-457c.
  • [5]Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.J.; Seaborg, G.T. Modern Nuclear Chemistry; John Wiley and Sons: New Jersey, 2006; 288-290.
  • [6]Mueller, A. C. Nuclear waste incineration and accelerator aspects from the European PDS-XADS study. Nucl. Phys. A.2005, 751, 453c-468c.