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Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions PowerPoint Presentation
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Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions

Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions

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Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions

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  1. Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel utilizing Spallation Reactions John Freiderich NCSS 07/27/2006

  2. Introduction • Accumulated Spent Nuclear Fuel • Over 40k metric tons • Spallation • Transmutation

  3. Spallation • What does this entail? • Incident Particle • Target Nucleus • Goal: Generate Neutrons

  4. Cross-Section • Incident Particles • Charged Particles • Uncharged Particles

  5. Mass Partitions

  6. Two-Step Nucleon Production • First Step • Penetration • Intranuclear Cascade • Second Step • De-excitation of Compound Nucleus • Evaporation of nucleons and light nuclei • Fission

  7. Intranuclear Cascade

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel • Prediction: Enrico Fermi (1940s) • Today • Criticality Concerns • Decay Heat Management • Radioactive Waste Handling • Seen as Primary Problems

  9. Products of Nuclear Waste • Radio nuclides • 90Sr, 137Cs • 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 129I, 135Cs and 99Tc • Mobility & Half-lives

  10. Transmutation • Transforming the Nucleus • Neutron Absorption

  11. Neutron Absorption • Induced through Sub-critical System • Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) • External Source of Neutrons

  12. Chemical Reprocessing • Aqueous Separations • Remove 238U and some other fission products

  13. ADS Schematic

  14. Conclusion • Exponential growth in Energy Demand • Spallation provides neutron source

  15. Inquiries?

  16. References • [1]Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H. Basic nuclear data for nuclear waste transmutation and radioactive nuclear beam production. Nucl. Phys. A.2004, 746, 281c-287c. • [2]Bernas, M.; Armbruster, P.; Benlliure, J.; Boudard, A.; Casarejos, E.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Pereira, J.; Rejmund, F.; Ricciardi, M.-V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stéphan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Volant, C. Very heavy fission fragments produced in the spallation reaction 238U+p at 1 A GeV. Nucl. Phys. A. 2005,765, 197-210. • [3]Friedlander, G.; Kennedy, J. W.; Macias, E. S.; Miller, J. M. Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 3rd edition; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1981; 171-176. • [4](a) Gudowski, W. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste. Nucl. Phys. A.2000, 663&664, 169c-182c. (b) Accelerator-driven Transmutation Projects. The Importance of Nuclear Physics Research for Waste Transmutation. Nucl. Phys. A.1999, 654, 436c-457c. • [5]Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.J.; Seaborg, G.T. Modern Nuclear Chemistry; John Wiley and Sons: New Jersey, 2006; 288-290. • [6]Mueller, A. C. Nuclear waste incineration and accelerator aspects from the European PDS-XADS study. Nucl. Phys. A.2005, 751, 453c-468c.