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Groups & Institutions. FOUR MODERN DIVISIONS OF JUDAISM:. Orthodox Judaism: One of the major movements of Judaism, believing that Jewish law comes from G-d and can not be changed.

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Groups institutions

Groups & Institutions


Orthodox Judaism:One of the major movements of Judaism, believing that Jewish law comes from G-d and can not be changed

  • Maintains that Torah is the standard of truth, and that life within society must always conform to it. Jewish life should change very little, for Torah is unchanging.

  • Committed to strict adherence of Biblical and Talmudic regulations

  • Strict observance of the Sabbath

  • Orthodox synagogues separate males and females, with females often sitting in the upstairs gallery

  • Services are conducted completely in Hebrew – led by male rabbis

  • All work is prohibited from sunset Friday until Sunset Saturday (no driving-no cooking)

  • Strict observance of Kosher Diet

  • Social Roles – (ultra-orthodox) Male v. Female roles = Men are the breadwinners – Women are responsible for running the household

  • Only males can celebrate a bar mitzvah

Conservative judaism accepts the binding nature of jewish law but believing that the law can change
Conservative Judaism:Accepts the binding nature of Jewish law, but believing that the law can change.

Conservatives are quite strict regarding the observance of traditional Jewish practices. Worship is in Hebrew, and laws regulating diet and behaviour on the Sabbath are strictly observed. Conservative Judaism holds a middle position between Reform and Orthodox.

  • They omit many traditional practices

  • Modified many traditional regulations regarding diet and Sabbath

  • Aim is to meet the changing needs of Jews in a changing society

Reform judaism believes that jewish law was inspired by g d and one can choose which laws to follow
Reform Judaism:Believes that Jewish law was inspired by G-d and one can choose which laws to follow.

  • Holds that being Jewish and being completely involved in modern society are compatible. As society changes, so must Judaism adapt to it.

  • They omit several ancient traditional practices

  • They abide by biblical and Talmudic regulations regarding diet and Sabbath

  • Their aim is to incorporate intellectual and scientific knowledge within the context of Judaism

Reconstructionist judaism the newest and smallest branch of judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism :The newest and smallest branch of Judaism

  • Founder – Mordecai Kaplan (1881-1983) Lithuanian immigrant to the U.S. Leader Of The Society For The Advancement Of Judaism

  • Influenced by American ideals of Democracy and practicality

  • Promoted a secular vision of Judaism which encourages Jews to become familiar with as many elements of Judaism as possible.but allows them the freedom of individual interpretation

  • Judaism is seen as a changing cultural force, it never stands still but evolves.