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Institutions

Institutions

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Institutions

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  1. Institutions

  2. Congress • Census • Redistricting • Gerrymandering • House of Representatives • 435 seats • 2year term • Senate • 100 • 6 year term

  3. Voting Right Cases • Smith v Allwright 1944 • Wesberry v Sanders 1963 • Buckley v Valeo 1976 • Shaw v Reno 1993/ Miller v Johnson 1995 • US Term limits v Thornton 1995 • Bush v Gore 2000

  4. Congress • Taxing • House Ways and Means Committee • Senate can only amend revenue bills • Bills of attainder • Ex post facto laws

  5. Non-Legislative Powers • Oversight • Public education • Representing constituents- casework

  6. Legislative Process • Sponsor the Bill • Bill must pass both houses of Congress in same form • Rules Committee • Killer Amendments • Filibuster • Pork Barrel • Conference committee • Compromise • Veto/Pocket Veto

  7. Committees • Majority of each house holds committee chairs • Majority- control business of committees • Subcommittees • Standing Committees- permanent, specialized • Judiciary , Armed Services • Joint Committees- House and Senate • Investigations, communicating to public • Select Committees- special purpose • Conference Committee- compromise

  8. Legislation • Pigeonholed • Place bill in a committee to die • Discharge petition • Force bill to the floor to vote • Hearings

  9. Leadership • House • Speaker • Chosen by majority party • Direct floor debate • Committee assignments • Majority Leader • Keeps party members in line • Determine party agenda • Minority Leader • Minority party agenda • Keep party members in line

  10. Senate • Vice President • President of Senate- tie breaker • President Pro Tem • Presiding officer • Honorary • Senior member • Majority Leader • Holds real power

  11. Key Legislation • Pendleton Act 1883 • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1896 • Hatch Act 1939 • Air Quality Act 1967 • Federal Election Campaign Act 1971-1974 • War Powers Act 1973 • Budget and Impoundment Control Act 1974 • Freedom of Information Act 1974 • Gramm Rudman Hollings Bill 1985

  12. Legislation • Espionage Act 1917/Sedition Act 1918 • Immigration Act 1924 • Civil Rights Act 1964 • Voting Rights Act 1965 • Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 • Civil Rights Act 1968 • Title XI Education 1972 • American w/ Disabilities Act 1990 • National Voter Registration Act – Motor Voter 1993 • Patriot Act 2001

  13. Executive • Executive Agreements • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 • War Powers Act 1973 • Cabinet • Secretaries • Department of Homeland Security • Impeachment

  14. Judiciary • Principles • Equal justice under the law • Adversarial system • Presumption of innocence • Due Process • Substantive • Is the law fair • Procedural • Are the laws fairly applied

  15. Law • Civil • Disputes over property, contracts, custody, liability • Criminal • Grand jury • Should a trial commence

  16. Supreme Court • Judicial restraint • Reluctant to overturn prior rulings • Judicial Activism • Willing to overturn • Writ of certiorari • Legal document used to request lower courts transcript • Standing • Petitioner must have vested interest

  17. Judiciary • Judicial Review • Marbury v Madison 1803 • Fletcher v Peck 1810 • First case in which court overturned a state law • McCulloch v Maryland 1819 • Ruled that state did not have power to tax national bank – Federal government supremacy • Gibbons v Ogden 1824 • Federal government authority over interstate commerce

  18. Bureaucracy • Bureaucracy • Responsible for ensuring policies enacted by Congress and executive offices are carried out • Agencies • Federal Trade Commission • Securities and Exchange Commission • Nuclear Regulatory Commission • Federal Communications Commission • Food and Drug Administration • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission • Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  19. Bureaucracy • Iron Triangle • Lobbyists • Congressional committee • Agency (Bureaucracy)