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Gender Gap and Gendered Education: Myth or Reality?. Tatyana Sumner Fall 2012 ED.7201.T Action Research Final Presentation. Table of Contents. Statement of the Problem – slide 3 Proposed Intervention – slide 4 Literature Review – slide 5 -9

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Gender Gap and Gendered Education: Myth or Reality?


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    1. Gender Gap and Gendered Education: Myth or Reality? Tatyana Sumner Fall 2012 ED.7201.T Action Research Final Presentation

    2. Table of Contents Statement of the Problem – slide 3 Proposed Intervention – slide 4 Literature Review – slide 5-9 Theories – slide 10 Hypothesis Statement – slide 11 Method – slide 12 Appendices – slide 13-15 References – slide 16-20

    3. Statement of the Problem • Living in a gendered society we learn that male and female are different in many aspects. From anatomical and psychological variations to socially imposed stereotypes, gender related issues can and often do affect our children’s education (Ridgeway & Correll, 2004; Risman,2004). • There is a gross underrepresentation of women in math-related fields (Brandell & Staberg 2008; Leaper et al., 2012; Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010). • Socially constructed stereotypes, such as “girls are not good at math,” unconsciously and habitually reflect in both the educator’s instructions and parental attitudes, which in turn can reflect in children’s achievement, self-confidence and attitude toward mathematics (Guderson, Ramirez, Levine & Beilock, 2012; Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2002; Tomasetto, Alparone, & Cadinu, 2011; Tracy & Lane, 2006).

    4. Proposed Intervention • In order to attempt to create a change in the classroom, I believe that teachers should adjust instructional strategies to minimize bias treatment and reinforce heterogeneous, peer-learning environment. • This proposal falls in opposition to single-sex education practices that were legalized by the “No Child Left Behind” act (Gurian, Stevens, & Daniels, 2009; Herrelko, Jeffries, & Robertson, 2009).

    5. Literature Review Gap or No Gap • Gap exists in children’s academic achievement with boys outperforming girls. Boys score above 600 on SATs 4 times more often than girls (Ding, Song, & Richardson, 2006; Nosek et al., 2002). • There is a statistically insignificant gap in test results between boys and girls (Gunderson et al, 2012; You, 2010). • Girls outperform boys in mathematics (Geist & King, 2008).

    6. Literature Review Math attitudes • Girls are less likely to pursue higher mathematics or math-related careers – gender gap in attitude (Brandell & Staberg, 2008; Steffens, Jelenec, & Noack, 2010James, 2007). • Adhearing to gender stereotypes, girls associate themselves with literacy and boys with mathematics Math = Male, Me = Female, Therefore Math ≠ Me (Leaper, Farkas, & Brown, 2012, Noseket al, 2002; Steffens et al., 2010). • Girls attribute success to luck or hard work rather than talent (Steffens et al., 2010; Stetsenko, Little, Gordeeva, Grasshof, & Oettingen, 2000).

    7. Literature Review Nature vs. Nurture • Mathematics gender differences are genetic (Cambell, Verna, & O’Connor-Petruso; James, 2007, You, 2010). • Mathematics gender differences are cognitive (Geary, Saults, Liu, & Hoard, 2000; Moe, 2012) • Mathematics gender differences are result of diverse socialization (Cvencek, Meltzoff, & Greenwald, 2011; Ding et al., 2006; Goolet al., 2006; Kane & Mertz, 2011; Noseket al., 2012; You 2010). • Parental and teachers’ attitudes toward gender biases and math anxieties affect children’s perceptions of their own achievements (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez and Levine (2010); Eccels, Jackobs, and Harold, 1990; Gunderson et al, 2012). • Mathematics gender differences are result of equal amounts of biological and social factors (Cambell et al, 2004; Pearce, 2003; Spinath, Spinath, & Plomin, 2008).

    8. Literature Review Stereotypes and Stereotype Threat • Stereotype threat is a fear of one’s performance being judged based on socially constructed, negative stereotype (Shapiro & Williams, 2012; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Tomasetto, Alparone, & Cadinu, 2011). • Women underperform when exposed to stereotype threat (Schmader, Johns, & Forbes, 2008; Shapiro & Williams, 2012; Spencer et al., 1999). • Parental endorsement or rejection of gender stereotypes affect students’ vulnerability or resistance to stereotype threat (Tomasettoet al., 2011).

    9. Literature Review Proposed Solutions for Gender Inequality • Educating teachers about gender bias and assisting them in recognizing signs in their own behavior (Tracy & Lane, 1999). • Differentiated instruction. Students should be taught in accordance with cognitive gender differences (Geist & King, 2008; James, 2007). • Single-gender classes. Students can benefit when genders are segregated and instruction can be adjusted according to each gender’s learning and behavioral differences (Gurian, Stevens, & Daniels, 2009; Herrelco, Jeffries, & Robertson, 2008). • Students should be taught to work together in peer-assisted and cooperative learning environments (Kroeger & Kouche, 2006; Kuntz, McLaughlin, & Howard, 2001; Sparks, 2012; Tournaki& Criscitiello, 2003). • Provide girls with female role-models, support against stereotype threat and encouragement in their abilities (Goolet al., 2007; Shapiro & Williams, 2012).

    10. Theories • Stereotype Threats – a psychological fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype creates extra stress that disrupts and undermines women’s performance in the circumstances. This theory has been applied to education and gendered mathematics stereotypes. (Shapiro & Williams, 2012; Spencer et al., 1998; Tomasetto et al., 2011) • Nature and Nurture - While there was a lot of debate whether biological or social difference attribute to educational gaps in children’s academics, Robert Plomin proposed that both elements, nature and nurture, must have equal or near-equal contribution to the differences observed in the development and educational studies. (Campbell, Verna, & O’Connor-Petruso, 2004; Pearce, 2003; Spinath, Spinath, & Plomin, 2008)

    11. Hypotheses Statements • By creating teams of two (1 boy and 1 girl) during mathematics instruction for the duration of the whole day, twice a week, for the period of 10 weeks, in a classroom of 12 students (6 boys, 6 girls) in an elementary school of Brooklyn, NY, will improve girls’ attitudes toward mathematics. • By creating teams of two (1 boy and 1 girl) during mathematics instruction for the duration of the whole day, twice a week, for the period of 10 weeks, in a classroom of 12 students (6 boys, 6 girls) in an elementary school of Brooklyn, NY, will improve girls’ tests scores in mathematics.

    12. Method Participants • A small group of 2nd grade students, 6 boys and 6 girls, with an average age of 7 years old who attend elementary school X in Brooklyn, New York. Instruments • Cooperative pair-activity lesson plans • Instructions • Manipulatives • Exercise • Initial math exam • Initial questionnaire • End-of-study math exam • End-of-study questionnaire

    13. Appendix A: Parental Consent Form Dear Parent/Guardian, I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and co-educational learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls. Therefore, I am requesting your permission to have your child participate in the implementation of aforementioned instructional strategies and to use your child’s data that is relative to the research. All instruction will be administered during your child’s regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives. Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies. Data collected from these sources will be reported as group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of the research I will gladly provide final results upon request. If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email vedmochka81@gmail.com Thank you in advance for your support! Sincerely, Tatyana Sumner I agree to my child, ________________________________________, participating in the action research described above. (student’s name) I do NOT agree to my child, __________________________________________, participating in the action research descried above. (student’s name) Signature of Parent/Guardian ______________________________________ Date _________

    14. Appendix B: Principal’s Consent Form Dear Principal, I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and co-educational learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls. Therefore, I am requesting your permission to use one fourth-grade classroom in your school to implement the aforementioned instructional for the duration of the research. All instruction will be administered during regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives. Modified instruction will take place 3 times a week for the period of 6 weeks. Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies. Data collected from these sources will be reported as group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of the research I will gladly provide final results upon request. If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email vedmochka81@gmail.com Thank you in advance for your support! Sincerely, Tatyana Sumner I, _______________________________________________, give permission to Tatyana Sumner to use one (1) fourth-grade classroom for the action research as described above. Signature of Principal ________________________________________ Date ______________

    15. Appendix C: Teacher’s Consent Form Dear Teacher, I am currently a student at Brooklyn College in the process of completing a Childhood Education Masters Program. As part of our curriculum, I am conducting an action research to determine possible beneficial effects of peer-assisted and co-educational learning instructional strategies on achievement in and attitude toward mathematics among boys and girls. Therefore, I am requesting your participation and cooperation to implement the aforementioned instructional strategies in your classroom for the duration of the research. All instruction will be administered during regular classroom time, following the scheduled curriculum objectives. Modified instruction will take place 3 times a week for the period of 7 weeks. Students will be given a mathematics test and a survey before and after implementation of the new instructional strategies. Data collected from these sources will be reported as group findings; therefore, all participants’ names and other information will remain anonymous. Additionally, at the end of the research I will gladly provide final results upon request. If you have any additional questions or concerns please feel free to contact me by email vedmochka81@gmail.com Thank you in advance for your support! Sincerely, Tatyana Sumner I, _______________________________________________, agree to participate in the action research as described above. Signature of Teacher _________________________________________ Date ______________

    16. References • Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. C. (2010). Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,107(5), 1860-1863. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910967107 • Brandell, G., & Staberg, E. (2008). Mathematics: A female, male or gender-neutral domain? A study of attitudes among students at secondary level. Gender and Education, 20(5), 495-509. doi:10.1080/09540250701805771 • Campbell, J. R., Verna, M., and O’Connor-Petruso, S. (2004). Gender paradigms. Paper presented at the IRC-2004 Conferences, Lefkosia, Cyprus. Retrieved from http://www.iea.nl/fileadmin/user_upload/IRC/IRC_2004/Papers/IRC2004_Campbell_Verna_etal.pdf • Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Math-gender stereotypes in elementary school children. Child Development, 82(3), 766-779. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01529.x • Ding, C. S., Song, K., & Richardson, L. I. (2006). Do mathematical gender differences continue? A longitudinal study of gender difference and excellence in mathematics performance in the U.S. Educational Studies, 40(3), 279-295. doi:10.1080/0013940701301952 • Eccles, J. S., & Jacobs, J. E., & Harold, R. D. (1990). Gender role stereotypes, expectancy effects and parents’ socialization of gender differences. Journal of Social Issues, 46(2), 183-201. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1990.tb01929.x

    17. References (cont’d) • Geary, D. C., Saults, S. J., Liu, F., & Hoard, M. K. (2000). Sex differences in special cognition, computational fluency, and arithmetical reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 337-353. doi:10.1006/jecp.2000.2594 • Geist, E. A., & King, M. (2008). Different, not better: Gender differences in mathematics learning and achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(1), 43-52. Retrieved from Education Full Text Database • Gool, J., Carpenter, J., Davies, S., Ligos, T., MacKenzie, L., Schilp, R., & Schips, J. (2006). Teacher bias of gender in the elementary classroom. Education Today, (5), 27-30. Retrieved from Education Research Complete Database • Gunderson, E., Ramirez, G., Levine, S., & Beilock, S. (2012). The role of parents and teachers in the development of gender-related math attitudes. Sex Roles, 66(3/4), 153-166. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9996-2 • Gurian, M., Stevens, K., & Daniels, P. (2009). Single-sex classrooms are succeeding. Educational Horizons, 87(4), 234-245. Retrieved from ERIC Database • Herrelko, J. M., Jeffries, K., & Robertson, A. (2009). The impact of single gender elementary school on mathematics classes in an urban school. scholarlypartnershipsedu, 4(1), 5-19. Retrieved from http://opus.ipfw.edu/spe/vol4/iss1/2 • James, A. N. (2007). Gender differences and the teaching of mathematics. Inquiry, 12(1), 14-25. Retrieved from ERIC Database

    18. References (cont’d) • Kane, J. M., & Mertz, J. E. (2011). Debunking myths about gender and mathematics performance. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 59(1), 10-21. doi:10.1090/noti790 • Kroeger, S. D., & Kouche, B. (2006). Using peer- assisted learning strategies to increase response to intervention in inclusive middle math settings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(5), 6-13. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete Database • Kuntz, K. J., McLaughlin, T. F., & Howard, V. F. (2001). A comparison of cooperative learning and small group individualized instruction for math in a self contained classroom for elementary students with disabilities. Educational Research Quarterly, 24(3), 41-56. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete Database • Leaper, C., Farkas, T., & Brown, C. (2012). Adolescent girls’ experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and English. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 268-282. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9693-z • Moe, A. (2012). Gender difference does not mean genetic difference: Externalizing improves performance in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(1), 20-24. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.11.001 • Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83(1), 44-59. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.83.1.44 • Pearce, J. (2003). Personal profile: Robert Plomin. Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 8(1), 40. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete Database

    19. References (cont’d) • Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender & Society, 18(4), 510-531. doi:10:1177/0891243204265269 • Risman, B. J. (2004). Gender as a social structure: Theory wrestling with activism. Gender & Society, 18(4), 429-450. doi:10.1177/0891243204265349 • Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Forbes, C. (2008). An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychological Review, 115(2), 336-356. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.336 • Shapiro, J., & Willaims, A. (2012). The role of stereotype threats in undermining girls’ and women’s performance and interest in STEM fields. Sex Roles, 66(3/4), 175-183. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0051-0 • Sparks, S. D. (2012). Researchers cite social benefits in coed classes. Education Week, 31(30), 1-15. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete Database • Spencer S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1), 4-28. doi:10.1006/jesp.1998.1373 • Spinath, F. M., Spinath, B., & Plomin, R. (2008). The nature and nurture of intelligence and motivation in the origins of sex differences in elementary school achievement. European Journal of Personality, 22(3), 211-229. doi:10.1002/per.677 • Steffens, M. C., Jelenec, P., &Noack, P. (2010). On the leaky math pipeline: Comparing implicit math-gender stereotypes and math withdrawal in female and male children and adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 947-963. doi:10.1037/a0019920

    20. References (cont’d) • Stetsenko, A., Little, T. D., Gordeeva, T., Grasshof, M., & Oettingen, G. (2000). Gender effects in children’s beliefs about school performance: A cross-cultural study. Child Development, 71(2), 517-527. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00161 • Tomasetto, C., Alparone, F., & Cadinu, M. (2011). Girls’ math performance under stereotype threat: The moderating role of mothers’ gender stereotypes. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 943-949. doi:10.1037/a0024047 • Tournaki, N., & Criscitiello, E. (2003). Using peer tutoring as a successful part of behavior management. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(2), 22-29. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Publications2/TEACHINGExceptionalChildren/default.htm • Tracy, D. M., & Lane, M. B. (1999). Gender-equitable teaching behaviors: Preservice teachers’ awareness and implementation. Equity & Excellence in Education, 32(3), 93-104. doi:10.1080/1066568990320311 • You, Z. (2010). Research in brief: Gender differences in mathematics learning. School Science and Mathematics, 110(3), 115-117. doi:10.1111/j.1949-8594.2010.00028.x

    21. The End