ICT IN EDUCATION IN AFRICA MYTH OR REALITY? THE CASE OF MOZAMBIQUE Xavier Muianga email@example.com
Presentation Outlines • Mozambique • Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • Aims and objectives • Research framework & Methodology • ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • Challenges of Expansion of Use of ICTs • Results and conclusions
Mozambique • Surface area: 799,380 sq. km; • Coastline : 2,470 with Indian Ocean; • Population: 21,669,278; • Illiteracy: ± 52.2 % • GDP real growth: 6.5 % ( 2008) • Border Countries: South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 109 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km, Malawi 1,569 km, Zambia 419 km, Tanzania 756 km.
Aims and objectives • To Provide the description of the current state of implementation of ICT4E; • To Analyze the conditions in term of policies, ICT infrastructure, access and use of ICT, actors involved, institutional vision, pedagogical approaches, challenges, limitations, and current involvement in ICT4E activities and perceptions towards the implementation; and, • To analyze the involvement of public and private institutions in supporting ICT4E activities.
Research Methodology • A qualitative study was carried out; • Semi-structured interview, with open ended questionnaire to the IHEwas conducted; • Case study was applied for institutions within Maputo City; • Survey study was applied for other institutions outside to Maputo; • Documents from the institutions regarding implementation of ICT4E.
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • POLICIES: • ICT National Policy; • Higher Education Policy; • Institutional ICT policy Exists But...in practice?
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • POLICIES: • 2008 - Created the Code of Fiscal Benefits; • 2010 - Created the framework for interoperability, which allows systems and ICT infrastructure can not act discontinuously. • Under discussion ... the law of electronic transactions that protect the citizen and it will allow the use of ICT and associated services.
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • ICT INFRASTRUCTURE: • Network and Connectivity; • Broadband Access; • Communication Companies • Mcell, Vodacom and Movitel
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • ICT INFRASTRUCTURE • Expansion and modernization of the entire telecommunications infrastructure with the use of fiber optic communications in the country; • Interconnection of the optical fiber national regional SEACOM fiber optic; • Expanding coverage and increasing the number of mobile telephone users; • Interconnection of state institutions through GovNet;
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • ACCESS AND USE OF ICT: • Educational Philosophy (Pedagogy); • Knowledge and Skills; (Ex. ICT basic skills ) • Educational Software; (Electronic Learning Environment)
ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • Current Situation of Access and Use of ICTs • Although the picture here to maximize the access to higher education, to access and use of ICTs, the use of ICTs by Mozambicans are still far less of ideal, and is the most commonly used ICTs is radio and now the mobile phone. • The computer and its associated services used by a minority.
Conditions for ICT Implementation in Higher Education in Mozambique • ACTORS: • Higher Education and Research Institutions; • Ministry of Education; • Ministry of Science; and Technology; • Private Sector.
Challenges of Expansion of Use of ICTs • Financial Resources, materials and human resources; • ICT and pedagogical development; • The transfer of knowledge; • Training and equitable distribution of staff, researchers, innovators and technology users • Resistance to change; • Clear operationalization plan.
Results and conclusions • Design and implementation of ICT policies; • Ministry of Science and Technology has developed MoRENet which is a nationwide data network that will interconnect academic and research institutions, developing activities with non-profit purposes to promote expansion and utilization of the ICT infrastructure; • These policies encourage all institution of higher education to address ICT as key issues for teaching and learning;
Results and conclusions • Some institutions are benefit or have benefited by funds from the government in co-ordination with international development agencies for ICT infrastructure capacity building; • Some institutions we found that there are special programs to support students to acquire computers on loan bases; • Some institutions there are agreements with some companies that sell computer with commercial banks to facilitate loans for students to buy computers;
Results and conclusions • some institutions still facing infrastructural constraints, most of the institutions outside of Maputo City have low bandwidths access; • all institutions are still using traditional approaches, also for much more sustained work needs to be done in human capacity development in both in the technical as well as in teaching staff; • Some institutions were found to have no clear action plan for ICT implementation.