EDUCATION POLICY: CHOICE AND COMPETITION Parth J Shah President Centre for Civil Society Myth 1: The poor need their children to earn/work Myth 2: People are ignorant of the benefits of education Myth 3: People do not have money or are unwilling to spend on education
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Parth J Shah
Centre for Civil Society
Proportion who performed wage labor on the day preceding the survey
Average time of work on the day preceding the survey*
Extra time of work, compared with children who are attending school
* Median in brackets
Source: PROBE survey (random sub-sample of 333 out-of-school children in the 6-12 age group)
“Inactive teachers were found engaged in a variety of pastimes such as sipping tea,
reading comics or eating peanuts. Generally, teaching activity has been reduced to a minimum, in terms of both time and effort. And this pattern is not confined to a minority of irresponsible teachers – it has become a way of life in the profession.”
… found that in only 53% of government schools any teaching going on at all. … plain negligence: … cases of teachers keeping a school closed for months at a time; a school where the head-teacher was drunk, a head-teacher who asks the children to do domestic chores, including looking after the baby; several cases of teachers sleeping at school; … a head-teacher who comes to school once a week.
Economic and Political Weekly, February 3 & 10, 1996
Households spend large sums of money on acquiring primary education; a sizable number of students do not receive primary education free, in contrast to the claims made by the government; a large number of students pay tuition fee, examination fee and other fees even in government primary schools in India.Professor JBG Tilak
Article 24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories—No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.Fundamental Right against Exploitation
There is little evidence of a positive relationship between per student expenditures and enrolments of the students from the bottom 40 percent of family income….
Deon Filmer and Lant Pritchett, “Educational Enrolment and Attainment in India: Household Wealth, Gender, Village and State Effects,” Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, April 1999, p. 159 (based on the data for 1992-93)
This lack of a general effect is not surprising, as there is a huge literature that supports the proposition that, while additional spending has the potential to raise school quality, there is no necessary connection between school quality and school spending…
“PUA schools are unambiguously and substantially more cost-effective and internally efficient than G and PA schools…”
Elementary Education Compulsory
Share of Education in the State Budget
Fee-Free Primary Education
Free Textbooks and Stationary
Proportion of Income Spent on Primary Education by Households in the Lowest Income Quintile
Competition for the Soul
(get more followers of a religion)
Abolish the license-permit raj in education
The school must obtain “Essential Certificate” by establishing that its existence serves the public interest. The Administrator decides by taking into account “the number and categories of recognised schools already functioning in that locality, and general desirability of the school with reference to the suitability and sufficiency of the existing schools in the locality and the probable effect on them.” (my emphasis)
Rule 8: Terms and Conditions of Service of Employees of Recognised Private Schools,
Clause 2: Subject to any rule that may be made in this behalf, no employee of a recognised private school shall be dismissed, removed or reduced in rank nor shall his service be otherwise terminated except with the prior approval of the Director.
Rule 139: Admission on transfer
No student who had previously attended any recognised school shall be admitted to any aided school unless he produces a transfer or school leaving certificate from the school which was last attended by him.
Federation of Private Schools Management,Hyderabad
Devolved to school
Government institutions: Autonomy and accountability.
Syllabi, Exams,and Certification: Depoliticise and Decentralise
Empower students and parents. Money should follow students, not schools.
One restriction (regulation) creates situation that demands further restrictions, which in turn requires more restrictions.
Once a bag of potato chips is opened, it’s hard to stop at one or a few chips.
Private voucher scheme USA
Contracting out: public-private partnerships (PPP)
Extending access to private education, especially for the disadvantaged
Source: P. Duraisamy and T. P. Subramanian (1999, p. 43)
The recurring maintenance grants are
Non-recurring maintenance grant shall be of the following categories,
Total Expenditure Rs 318/year
PROBE survey (sub-sample of 831 children enrolled in government primary schools)