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Tokugawa Japan ’ s Selective Rejection of New Technology PowerPoint Presentation
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Tokugawa Japan ’ s Selective Rejection of New Technology

Tokugawa Japan ’ s Selective Rejection of New Technology

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Tokugawa Japan ’ s Selective Rejection of New Technology

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  1. Tokugawa Japan’s Selective Rejection of New Technology Coming Out from Under the Gun

  2. Japan at the End of the 16th Century

  3. Tokugawa Japan’s Selective Rejection of New Technology • I. Age of the Country at War (1467–1600) • II. Out from Under the Gun (1607–1853) • III. Anti-Tokugawa, anti-Confucian Intellectual Movements

  4. I. Age of the Country at War (1467–1600) • A. Period of “National Unification” (1568–1600) • 1. Oda Nobunaga (1534–1582) • 2. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–1598) • 3. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616) — founder of Tokugawa Shogunate

  5. Oda Nobunaga (1534–1582)

  6. Contemporary Portrait of Oda Nobunaga

  7. Toyotoma Hideyoshi (1536–1598)

  8. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616)

  9. Board on Which Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu Played Go

  10. Tokugawa Ieyasu’s Handprint

  11. 3. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616) — founder of Tokugawa Shogunate a. Battle of Sekigahara (1600) b. Took title of shogun (1603) c. Siege of Osaka Castle (1615)

  12. 3. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616) — founder of Tokugawa Shogunate d. views of (1) Buke Hyaku Kajo (2) George Sansom, A History of Japan (1958–1963) (3) Edwin O. Reischauer, Japan: The Story of a Nation (1970)

  13. Battle of Sekigahara (1600)

  14. Osaka Castle

  15. Siege of Osaka Castle

  16. I. Age of the Country at War (1467–1600)(continued) • B. Japanese Views of Europeans and European Views of Japanese • C. Tokugawa Technological Achievements

  17. C. Tokugawa Technological Achievements • 1. Engineering • 2. Mining and Metallurgy • 3. Mathematics — wasan • 4. Agriculture • 5. Postal service • 6. Medicine • 7. Retail merchandising • 8. Paper manufacture

  18. I. Age of the Country at War (1467–1600)(continued) • D. Centralization and the Turn Away from Foreign Influence • 1. “Laws Governing Military Households” (1615) • 2. Sakoku — “closed country policy” (1635) • 3. Exclusion of Portuguese (1639) • 4. Village regulations (1649)

  19. Nagasaki Bay with View of Dejima Island

  20. Scale Model of Dutch Outpost on Dejima Island

  21. II. Out from Under the Gun (1607–1853) — based on Noel Perrin, Giving Up the Gun, 1979 • A. Introduction of Matchlocks — August 25, 1543 • 1. Tanegashima Island (guns called tanegashima [later teppo]) • 2. Lord Tokitaka (acted as entrepreneur) • 3. “skip the introductions” — Battle of Uedahara (1548) • 4. Battle of Nagashino (1575) — 3 ranks of 1000 each

  22. Arquebus from Tanegashima Island(now in Ako Temple Museum)

  23. Arquebuses from the Tokugawa Shogunate

  24. II. Out from Under the Gun (1607–1853) — based on Noel Perrin, Giving Up the Gun, 1979 (continued) • B. Reasons for Turning Away from Guns • 1. samurai opposed firearms — Bushido • 2. geopolitical — islands are hard to invade • 3. swords had great symbolic value • 4. general reaction against outside influence • 5. aesthetic — swords associated with elegant body movement

  25. Samurai in Full Armor

  26. Samurai with Nanban Cuirass

  27. The Samurai Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga in Rome in 1615

  28. Sketch of Samurai with His Servant

  29. Samurai with Various Weapons

  30. Red Seal Ship

  31. Izumo no Okuni Founder of Kabuki (ca. 1603)

  32. Shudo Same-sex love

  33. III. Anti-Tokugawa, anti-Confucian Intellectual Movements • 1. Kokugaku = “national learning” — Kamo Mabuchi (1697–1769) • 2. Rangaku = “Dutch studies” — Sugita Gempaku (1733–1817) • 3. Honda Toshiaki (1744–1821), A Secret Plan of Government • (Keisei Hisaku) (1798) • – “four imperative needs”: gunpowder, metallurgy, trade, colonies

  34. Kokugaku • Mono no aware: “Sensitivity to things” • • term coined in the 18th century by the  Edo periodJapanese cultural scholar Motoori Norinaga, • • originally a concept used in his literary criticism of The Tale of Genji, and later applied to other seminal Japanese works including the Man'yōshū • • becoming central to his philosophy of literature, and eventually to the Japanese cultural tradition.

  35. Sakura within a field of Phlox subulata at Yachounomori Garden in Tatebayashi, Gunm

  36. Example of Rangaku: Account of Foreign Countries by Nishikawa Joken (1708)

  37. Example of Rangaku: Japan’s First Treatise on Western Anatomy (1774)

  38. Example of Rangaku: Description of a Microscope from Sayings of the Dutch (1787)

  39. Example of Rangaku: Astronomy on Dejima Island

  40. Sayonara