Air Quality Monitoring for Advocacy Version 1.0 (October 2009)
Air quality monitoring for tobacco control • Secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes and other burned tobacco products are hazardous to smokers AND nonsmokers. • With every breath of SHS, you inhale a toxic soup of more than 4,000 chemical compounds • Air quality monitoring helps you measure pollution from secondhand smoke.
Overview • What are you monitoring and why? • What does air quality monitoring involve (process)? • How do we use air quality monitoring data for advocacy?
What are you monitoring? • SidePak monitors measure the levels of respirable suspended particles in the air that contribute to particle pollution, also known as particulate matter (PM). • While PM come in many sizes, cigarettes, cigars and pipes are MAJOR emitters of PM2.5 – a particle size that SidePaks can easily measure. • PM2.5 particles are too small to be trapped by the nose or throat and can get deep into the lungs and even into your bloodstream.
Why monitor air quality? lung disease asthma attacks acute/chronic bronchitis respiratory infections heart attacks other heart disease arrhythmias coughing chest discomfort palpitations wheezing shortness of breath unusual fatigue cancer premature death low birth weight SIDS eye and nasal irritation Because PM2.5 particles can get into the lungs and your bloodstream, it causes severe health problems, including: Source: Environmental Protection Agency – AirNow.gov
Why monitor in INDOOR locations? Secondhand smoke is a primary cause of indoor air pollution in workplaces and other indoor places (i.e., bars, restaurants, educational institutions, airports, hospitals, etc.).
How can you do air quality monitoring? • Air quality monitoring involves: • Knowing your local smoke-free law • 2) Determining your objective and identifying what • story you want to tell with your data, based on • your law • 3) Collecting and analyzing your data • 4) Disseminating your results (advocacy)
Knowing your smoke-free law Familiarize yourself with key components of your local smoke-free law, if there is one. KNOW: • What types of facilities are covered in the smoke-free law? • Is it a 100% smoke-free law or does the law allow for designated smoking areas/rooms? • If it allows for designated smoking area/rooms, what are the guidelines in place?
Determining your objective There are three main objectives that you can work towards using your AQM data: • Objective 1: Pass a smoke-free law • Objective 2: Strengthen an existing smoke-free law • Objective 3: Monitor compliance of an existing smoke-free law
Using AQM data to tell stories Here are some ways to approach each objective. The following slides illustrate what stories could Be told under each of these objectives. • Objective 1:Pass a smoke-free law • Story ideas: You may want to compare the air quality levels of: • smoke-free locations to other smoking locations • smoking locations to polluted locations • Smoking locations to other outdoor locations • Looking ahead: This baseline data can be used to compare to levels after the law is implemented
Using AQM data to tell stories • Objective 2:Strengthen an existing smoke- free law • Story ideas: Laws that allow for designated smoking rooms (DSRs)/areas are weak because they don’t effectively protect from secondhand smoke. Choose locations that have designated smoking rooms. Be sure to sample the air quality in both, the designated smoking and non-smoking areas for each place with DSRs and then compare them to 100% smoke-free places.
Using AQM data to tell stories • Objective 3:Monitor compliance of an existing smoke-free law • Story ideas: Is your government effectively enforcing your existing smoke-free law? In general, high compliance means that no one is smoking in designated smoke-free areas. Select several public locations to survey. Find places that do and do NOT comply with the law and compare the air quality levels of both. If there is a high level of compliance (i.e., you don’t find anyone smoking in designated smoke-free areas), then take the opportunity to congratulate the local jurisdiction. If there is a low level of compliance, then use your AQM data to advocate for better enforcement. You might want to organize your data based on location type (restaurants, bars, offices, hospitals).
Objective 1: Pass a smoke-free law Story idea: Comparing smoke-free to smoking venues
Objective 1 (cont.):Pass a smoke-free law Story idea:Comparing levels of different types of indoor venues
Objective 1 (cont.): Pass a smoke-free law Story idea: Smoking vs. heavily polluted areas
Objective 2: Strengthen an existing smoke-free law Story idea:Partial laws that allow for smoking rooms/areas (Six restaurants of each of the three types of restaurants)
Objective 2: Strengthen an existing smoke-free law Story idea:Smoking exceptions for hospitality locations, but not other workplaces Partially smoke-free 100% Smoke-free
Objective 3: Monitor compliance of an existing smoke-free law Story idea:Pre-law vs. anticipated post-law implementation
Other story ideas:Comparingdifferent cities Low levels of indoor air pollution High levels of indoor air pollution www.tobaccofreeair.org
Other story ideas:Comparing differentcountries 24 Country Comparison of Levels of Indoor Air Pollution in Different Workplaces (2006)
The bottom line: Regardless of where and how the study is done: • Smoky locations have very POOR air quality in comparison to smoke-free locations. • 100% smoke-free areas have better air quality than places that allow smoking or have smoking areas.
Collecting and analyzing data • Collecting data is easy (we have easy-to-follow • instructions). All you have to do is: • Prepare your monitor • 2) Take it out to each location for at least 30 minutes • 3) Log observational notes, while the machine reads and collects • air quality levels at your location • 4) Upload monitor-collected data to a computer • 5) Send monitor data and observational data to us (We facilitate • the data analysis for you and answer any of your questions • along the way) • 6) The analysis report will be completed for you by experts
Disseminating your air quality monitoring results effectively Once you determine your objective, establish your strategy for releasing your results: • Identify your target audience (i.e., journalists, citizens, politicians, advocates, enforcement officers) and who would most benefit from the story you’re trying to tell. • Develop key research-based messages – how are you going to convey your message based on your target audience? • Along with your AQM results, your messages should include: • Information on the dangers of secondhand smoke. • Background on tobacco use in your country. • A description of the smoke-free law.
Disseminating your air quality monitoring results effectively (cont.) • Identify opponents and research their likely messages and strategies • Establish tactics on how to effectively disseminate your story to your target audience (i.e., presentations, media release, written materials, other) • Identify key spokespeople (i.e., media, politicians, enforcement officers, advocates, researchers) who can help deliver your message • This must be someone that is credible, knows the data, and is well-trained on how to effectively communicate the key messages. 6) Release your results!
Air quality monitoring and advocacy The purpose of air quality monitoring is for advocacy. You can use your results to: • Generate earned media – to draw attention to the issue • Inform the public – to build support • Inform policymakers – especially important to advocate for new/improved smoke-free laws
Using your results to generate earned media Generate EARNED MEDIA by: • Creating a press release • Writing a letter to the editor of a newspaper • Contacting newspaper reporters to generate interest • Holding a press event
Press Release: Ukraine (2009) Press Release following the Sumy, Ukraine air monitoring project. Objective: to pass a new law
Newspaper coverage: U.S. (2004) Multiple newspaper articles following a multi-city air monitoring study in the U.S. Reporters were invited on some monitoring visits. Objective: to pass a new law
Online news: Argentina (2007) Separating areas for smokers does not protect nonsmokers’ health Online media coverage following study on partial laws in Argentina Objective: to strengthen existing smoke-free laws
Newspaper coverage: Mumbai, India (2009) Two newspaper articles following a pre-post law air monitoring study in Mumbai, India Objective: to monitor compliance of an existing smoke-free law
News Conference: China News conference in China Objective: to pass a new law
Using your results to reach the public EDUCATE THE PUBLIC: • Create a summary document of the results that is informative and easy to understand • Educate your peers by presenting the information in schools and other community institutions • Present the information at community forums and town meetings • Create flyers or posters to display information in prominent, well traveled areas e.g. schools, community centers, and local businesses
Using your results to reach policymakers • Frame the message for policymakers • Meet with policymakers to inform them about the findings • Provide materials in a easy to use format (e.g. fact sheets) • Generate media attention through press releases and press conferences • Give POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS!
Oregon air monitoring summary report (for policymakers) “Laws requiring all workplaces, including bars, to be smoke-free, effectively reduce PM2.5 to levels judged by the EPA to be safe for human health. …” “Oregon should act now for the health and safety of workers and consumers and make all indoor workplaces smoke-free.”
Some places where AQM has successfully been used … Argentina Canada China Germany Greece India Ireland Malaysia Mexico New Zealand Russia Spain Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uruguay
Air quality monitoring studies can complement your smoke-free campaign Conducting and publicizing air quality monitoring studies is an effective tool for smoke-free advocacy campaigns!!!