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3D Modelling. Week 2 Software and 3D Modelling. Aims of today. Revisit the fundamentals of 3D parametric modelling Software Hardware Modelling concepts 3D parametric modelling Primitives 2D to 3D Transformations Aligning Cloning Modifying primitives Boolean. Last week.

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3d modelling

3D Modelling

Week 2

Software and 3D Modelling

aims of today
Aims of today
  • Revisit the fundamentals of 3D parametric modelling
  • Software
  • Hardware
  • Modelling concepts
  • 3D parametric modelling
    • Primitives
    • 2D to 3D
    • Transformations
    • Aligning
    • Cloning
    • Modifying primitives
    • Boolean

3D Modelling

last week
Last week
  • Introduced the module
    • Presentation, discuss next week
    • Portfolio
  • Introduced parametric modelling
    • VRML or X3D
      • 3D space
      • Coordinates
      • Axes
      • Transformations
      • 3D primitives

3D Modelling

3d space
3D space
  • Rectangular coordinate system
  • Known as Cartesian coordinates
  • World or global coordinate system
    • Each object can have its own local coordinate system
  • Axes

3D Modelling

primitive parametric modelling
Primitive parametric modelling
  • Numerical description of the object
  • What are the parameters of:
    • Box(or cuboid)?
      • Size, 3 dimensions
    • Cylinder?
      • Height and radius
    • Sphere?
      • Radius

3D Modelling

transformations
Transformations
  • Geometric transformation
    • Mathematical operation
  • What are the three possible methods of transformation in VRML/X3D?
    • Position
    • Rotate
    • Scale

3D Modelling

perspective transformations
Perspective transformations
  • Perspective projection
    • Happens automatically in virtually all 3D software
    • A perspective view is created by projecting each point of the object onto a picture plane
    • Parallel lines converge in the distance
    • Creates a 2D image on the monitor/paper
  • Axonometric projection

3D Modelling

navigation transformations
Navigation transformations
  • Motions or transformations that place the viewpoint or camera in different parts of the scene
    • Position
    • Point of interest
    • Camera lens

3D Modelling

display in a webpage
Display in a webpage
  • A web browser
  • A free plug-ins
    • Cosmo VRML
      • http://ovrt.nist.gov/cosmo/
    • Cortona VRML
      • http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/
    • Flux VRML and X3D
      • http://www.mediamachines.com/flux/
    • BS Contact VRML and X3D
      • http://www.bitmanagement.de/

3D Modelling

3d modelling software
3d modelling software
  • Ranges from the free to the very expensive
  • Why might it be so expensive?
  • What might you expect your 3d software to do?

3D Modelling

typical scenario
Typical scenario
  • Your client asked you to make a 3D rendering of the steps involved in the self-assembly of a piece of furniture
    • What are your software options?
    • What are the cost implications of the various pieces of software?
    • What file type would be generated?
    • What are the hardware implications?

3D Modelling

activity
Activity
  • In pairs
    • Find 2 examples of free 3d software
    • Find 3 examples of ‘professional’ 3d software
      • http://dir.yahoo.com/Business_and_Economy/Business_to_Business/Computers/Software/Graphics/3D/
      • http://www.google.co.uk/

3D Modelling

activity1
Activity
  • Of the professional software options
    • What is the cost of one licence?
    • Can you to make an interactive web model?
    • What is the recommended hardware for this software?

3D Modelling

modeller concepts
Modeller concepts
  • Four types of modelling systems:
    • Parametric
    • Polygon
    • Spline
    • Patch
  • Many piece of software combine two or more of these basic techniques

Giambruno M, (2002)

3D Modelling

parametric modellers
Parametric modellers
  • Retain their base geometric information
    • Default shape
    • Current size
    • Segments
  • This information can be accessed and altered
  • Can be spline or polygon based
  • Deformations can be applied

3D Modelling

polygon modellers
Polygon modellers
  • Objects constructed with polygons
    • Made up of tiny, flat surfaces
  • More polygons mean
    • More detail
    • Bigger file sizes
  • Low polygon
    • Used in real-time games
    • Small file sizes
    • Quick to render

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

spline modellers
Spline modellers
  • A line defined as points, usually curved
  • Resolution independent
    • No faces
  • Useful for creating organic shapes
  • Different types
    • B-spline
    • Bezier
    • NURBS
      • Non-uniform rational b-splines

3D Modelling

spline types
Spline types
  • B-spline
  • Bezier
  • NURBS
    • Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines
  • More information at http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~dfg/AndysSplineTutorial

3D Graphics and animation

3D Modelling

patch modellers
Patch modellers
  • Use a network of control points
  • Lattice of splines or polygons
  • Stretch or tug on the shape
  • Useful for organic forms

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

working in the 3d world
Working in the 3D world
  • Most programs have a common features
    • Viewports
    • Mouse-selected features
      • Use right click for context sensitive menus
    • Type-in commands and parameters

3D Modelling

slide21

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

wireframe modelling
Wireframe modelling
  • Wireframe modelling requires less computing power than any form of rendering
  • Default
    • 3 viewports wireframe
    • 1 viewport rendered
  • Will use either OpenGL or DirectX
  • But not proper rendering with lighting and shadows
    • Takes even more processing power

3D Modelling

slide23

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

different viewports
Different viewports
  • 3ds max allows lots of different viewport arrangements

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

viewports
Customisable viewports

Top

Left or right

Perspective

Camera

Pan

Slide around

Zoom in or out

Zoom all

Viewports

3D Modelling

common 3d primitives
Common 3D primitives
  • Can you name them?
    • Cone
    • Sphere
    • GeoSphere
    • Teapot
    • Box
    • Tube
    • Cylinder
    • Taurus

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

activity2
Activity
  • Start up 3ds max
    • Draw a primitive shape
    • Experiment with panning, zooming
    • Change the viewpoints
    • Experiment with ‘right clicking’

3D Modelling

units and scale
Units and scale
  • English
    • Feet an inches
  • Metric
    • Meters and centimetres
  • Generic
    • Decimal numbers

3D Modelling

activity3
Activity
  • Using 3ds max help
    • Help>User reference
  • Find out how to alter the units system
  • Make sure that the software is set to Metres

3D Modelling

self assessment
Self assessment
  • What are the four types of modelling concepts used by modelling software?
  • What is the most useful for gaming?
    • Why is this used for gaming?
    • Why does it not work well for
      • Rendered views?
      • Organic shapes?
  • Discuss the four methods of converting 2D shapes to 3D
    • Give an example of each for constructing everyday objects

3D Modelling

file formats for modelling
File formats for modelling
  • Portable or universal file format
    • DXF .dxf
      • Drawing Interchange Format
      • Widely used in CAD (Computer Aided Design)
    • OBJ .obj
      • Computer animation an visual effects
    • 3ds .3ds
      • Mesh
  • Native
    • May be converted
    • 3ds max .max

3D Modelling

exporting importing files
Exporting/importing files
  • File conversion
      • 3D Studio (3DS)
      • Adobe Illustrator (AI)
      • ASC Scene Export (ASE)
      • AutoCAD (DWG)
      • AutoCAD (DXF)
      • Shockwave 3D
      • FiLMBOX (FBX)
      • Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)
      • Lightscape Material (ATR)
      • Lightscape Blocks (BLK)
      • Lightscape Parameter (DF)
      • Lightscape Layers (LAY)
      • Lightscape View (VW)
      • Lightscape Preparation File (LP)
      • Stereolithography (STL)
      • VRML97 (WRL)

3D Modelling

activity4
Activity
  • Import your VRML model from Portfolio 1

3D Modelling

transforms using software
Move

Numerical

Using your mouse

Rotate

Revolve around a selected axis

Pivot point

Scale

In one direction?

Mirror

Reverses an object

Or

Copies a reversed version of it along a selected axis

Useful for what?

Transforms using software

3D Modelling

transform tips
Transform tips
  • Work in plan and side view
  • Use gizmos
      • Viewport icons that let you quickly choose one or two axes when transforming a selection with the mouse.

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

align
Align
  • Bring object surfaces flush with each other
    • Center
    • Left
    • Right
  • Face
  • Edge
  • Vertex

3D Modelling

copying and instancing
Copying and instancing
  • Copy
    • Creates a completely separate clone from the original. Modifying one has no effect on the other
  • Instance
    • Creates a completely interchangeable clone of the original. Modifying an instanced object is the same as modifying the original
  • Reference method
    • Creates a clone dependent on the original up to the point when the object is cloned. Changing parameters for modifiers that were applied to the object before the object was referenced, will change both objects. However, a new modifier can be applied to one of the reference objects, and it will affect only the object to which it is applied.

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

slide38
Array
    • Series of clones
    • Linear
      • Select object
      • Define axis
      • Define distance
      • Define number
    • Radial
      • Select axis
      • Specify number

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

activity5
Activity
  • Today build a table with objects on top
  • Give every object a name
  • Experiment with
    • Align
    • Scale
    • Mirror
    • Copy

3D Modelling

deforms or modifiers
Deforms or modifiers
  • Modifiers provide a way for you to sculpt and edit objects
    • change the geometry of an object
  • An unlimited number of modifiers can be applied to an object
  • Modifiers can be deleted
  • Modifiers can be copied to other objects
  • The order or sequence in which you add modifiers is important.
      • Each modifier affects those that come after it.

3D Modelling

selection of modifiers
Bend

Bevel

Lathe

Edit mesh

Patch deformer

Surface modifier

Optimize

Edit spline

Taper

Smooth

Twist

Skin modifier

Mirror

Extrude

Refer to 3ds max 7 help

Selection of modifiers

3D Modelling

bend modifier
Bend modifier
  • Parameters
    • Angle
    • Direction
    • Axis
    • Limits

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

taper modifier
Taper modifier
  • Parameters
    • Amount
    • Curve
    • Axis
    • Limits

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

twist modifier
Twist modifier
  • Parameters
    • Angle
    • Bias
    • Axis
    • Limits

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

squash modifier
Squash modifier
  • Parameters
    • Axial bulge
      • Amount
      • Curve
    • Radial squeeze
      • Amount
      • Curve
    • Limits
    • Effect balance

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

object data flow
Object data flow
  • The software evaluates changes affecting the object for display
    • The object data flow is the order in which they are evaluated

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

the modifier stack
The Modifier Stack
  • Using the Modifier Stack
    • Find a particular modifier and adjust its parameters
    • View and manipulate the sequence of modifiers
    • Copy, cut, and paste modifiers between objects, or sets of objects
    • Deactivate the effect of a modifier in the stack, the viewport display, or both
    • Select a modifier’s components, such as gizmo or centre
    • Delete modifiers.
          • 3ds max 7 help

3D Modelling

activity6
Activity
  • Add a teapot, a cylinder, a sphere to your table
    • Bend them
    • Taper
    • Twist them
    • Squash them

3D Modelling

3d booleans
3D Booleans
  • Powerful sculpting tools
  • Multiple objects
  • Usually destructive

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

union boolean
Union Boolean
  • Union or addition
    • The intersecting or overlapping portion of the geometry is removed.

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

intersection boolean
Intersection Boolean
  • Intersection
    • Where they overlap

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

subtraction
Subtraction
  • Subtraction (or difference)
    • The Boolean object contains the volume of one original object with the intersection volume subtracted from it

a - b

b - a

3ds max v7

3D Modelling

activity7
Activity
  • Make a fruit bowl on your table using Boolean
  • Make a fruit bowl using lath
  • Are there any more ways?

3D Modelling

organising yourself
Organising yourself
  • Save frequently
  • Organise your work
    • How?
    • Save different versions of your work with new file names
    • Folders for tutorial work
    • Folders for portfolio work

3D Modelling

covered today
Covered today
  • Software
  • Hardware
  • Modelling concepts
  • 3D parametric modelling
    • Primitives
    • 2D to 3D
    • Transformation s
    • Aligning
    • Cloning
    • Modifying primitives
    • Boolean

3D Modelling

self assessment1
Self assessment
  • In building a model to display furniture
    • Compare the use of different types of cloning of shapes in the modelling of a furniture display
    • Give two instances of how array might be used in a furniture display and how the parameters would be set
    • Describe the how 3D primitives could be added/subtracted together to model a piece of furniture

3D Modelling

next week
Next week
  • Get to know the software
    • Work on 3ds max tutorials
  • Next portfolio
  • Directed reading
    • By now you should have read chapters 1- 5 of 3D Graphics & Animation
    • For next week read chapters 7 & 8
  • Next week we will discuss your presentation
    • YOU need to think about it and ask are you approaching it in the correct way

3D Modelling

references
References
  • Giambruno M, (2002) 3D Graphics & Animation, 2nd Edition, New Riders, ISBN: 0-7357-1243-3
  • Kerlow I. V., (2003) The Art of 3-D Computer Animation and Effects , 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc; ISBN: 0471430366
  • 3ds max 7 User Reference and Tutorials

3D Modelling