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Fire Safety Engineering & Structures in Fire. Development of Codes and Practice Session JT2. Workshop at Indian Institute of Science 9-13 August, 2010 Bangalore India. Structural Design. Design of Services. Design of Fire Safety Systems. Construction. No. Architectural Concept.

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fire safety engineering structures in fire

Fire Safety Engineering & Structures in Fire

Development of Codes and Practice

Session JT2

Workshop at Indian Institute of Science

9-13 August, 2010

Bangalore

India

construction

Structural Design

Design of

Services

Design of Fire Safety Systems

Construction

No

Architectural Concept

Consultation with Parties

  • Fire Safety
  • Authorities
  • Fire Brigades

Yes

Construction

  • Fire Safety
  • Authorities
  • Fire Brigades

Inspection

Yes

No

Acceptance

the cost of error
The Cost of Error

£

Architecture

Design

Construction

£ Unlimited

Acceptance

£2

£1

slide4

Smoke Management

  • Evacuation
  • Access for Fire Brigade

Architecture

Mechanical Engineering

  • HVAC systems
  • Hydraulic Systems

Civil

Engineering

  • Detection & Alarm
  • Smoke Management
  • Suppression & Control
  • Fire Resistance
  • Evacuation
  • Access for F.B.
  • Security

Fire Safety

Engineering

  • Fire Resistance

Structures

fire safety strategies
Fire Safety Strategies
  • Prescriptive Design
  • Performance Based Design
slide6

Life Safety

Compartmentation

Structure

Response

slide7

Life Safety

Common Sense

Compartmentation

Locate According to manufacturers Specifications

Specify According to Manufacturers Standard Test Data

Structure

Response

Define according to simple rules (Common Sense)

Common Sense

Common Sense

slide9

Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris

The Dome

London

Intercontinental Hotel, Shanghai

compliance
Compliance
  • Limited to conventional buildings
    • Conventional is less and less frequent
    • Construction has evolved faster than codes
    • Construction has evolved faster than our capacity to train authorities/engineers/fire service
  • Codes can only be used as a tool for the competent professional
summary
Summary
  • Fire Safety Engineering is a complex field that interacts with all other disciplines in the construction process
  • Codes and Standards (classic practises) are viable only for simple buildings – complex buildings require higher level engineering
  • Fire Safety Engineering is an important profession in the construction process!
fire safety strategies13
Fire Safety Strategies
  • Evacuation
    • Detection
    • Alarm
    • Displacement away from the fire
    • Crowd management
  • Compartmentation
    • Slows fire growth
    • Minimizes smoke spread
  • Response
    • Automatic (fire suppression)
    • External
    • Internal
  • Structural Integrity
time lines

Evacuation

Completed

Untenable Conditions

Structural

Failure

Time Lines

%

100%

t

solution

Untenable Conditions

Evacuation

Completed

Solution

%

Structural

Failure

100%

t

the objectives
The Objectives

te<<<<tf

te<<<<tS

ts→

slide18

Unprotected structure

  • High Ceilings
  • Delayed detection
  • Delayed sprinkler Activation

Smoke Management

slide20

Refurbishment of Historical Monument

Combined Construction Methods (Modern-Classic)

Interconnected Multiple Uses

Complex use of materials (plastic, steel, stone, etc.)

how are these problems addressed
How are these problems addressed
  • Can not be addressed by means of codes and standards
  • They are addressed by a combination of codes & standards as well as analytical tools
  • The process requires a complex approvals process where everyone involved has to be competent
a detailed analysis
A Detailed Analysis

Heron Tower

  • Kohn Pedersen Fox
  • 80 Storey Building in London
  • Formed of many 4 storey “villages”
  • Arup: Fire Engineering
key issues
Key Issues
  • How Would a 4 Storey Fire affect:
    • The structural performance of the building?
    • Egress?
    • Fire Detection & Suppression?
the fire
The Fire
  • 4 Storey Atrium Transforms the Fire
    • None of the conventional methods can address the unique nature of the fire
    • Fire needs to be modelled
  • Detection, Suppression and Structure need to be tested against the real fire
what does the engineer need to know
What does the Engineer need to know?
  • What does an engineer need to know to be able to conduct an adequate CFD analysis of this fire?
  • What does an engineer need to know to be able to transfer the fire information to test Detection, Suppression and Structure?