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Egress and Fire Protection

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Egress and Fire Protection

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  1. Egress and Fire Protection MODULE 17

  2. Egress and Fire Protection • What could make employees need to escape quickly? • What are the typical escape routes? • What precautions are taken for fire protection and prevention?

  3. Regulations • 29 CFR 1910 Subparts E and L • 29 CFR 1926 Subpart F – construction • API RP 54 • Section 7: Fire Protection and Prevention • 6.10: Auxiliary Escape • 9.3.10: At least 2 stairways on a drilling rig

  4. Exit Routes, EAPs, and FPPs 29 CFR 1910 Subpart E

  5. 1910.34 Coverage • Every employer is covered: • 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to workplaces in general industry • Except mobile workplaces such as vehicles or vessels • Exit routes • Emergency action plans

  6. 1910.34(c) Definitions • Exit: that portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. • Exit access: that portion of an exit route that leads to an exit. • Exit discharge: the part of the exit route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside.

  7. 1910.34(c) Definitions • Exit route: a continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). Consists of three parts: • The exit access; • The exit; and, • The exit discharge. • Equivalent to “Means of Egress” in the Life Safety Code and most local building and fire codes

  8. 1910.35 Compliance with NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code • Compliance with the exit route provisions of NFPA 101-2000 will be deemed to be in compliance with the corresponding requirements in § § 1910.34, 1910.36, 1910.37 NFPA

  9. Design and Construction Requirements for Exit Routes 29 CFR 1910.36

  10. 1910.36(a)(1) Basic Requirement Eat at Ma’s Place No ropes or rope ladders • An exit route must be a permanent part of the workplace

  11. 1910.36(a)(2) Exit separated by fire resistant materials • Construction materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace: • 1 hour resistance 3 stories • 2 hours resistance 4 stories 1 hour2 hours

  12. 1910.36(a)(3) Openings into an exit must be limited • Openings into an exit: limited to those necessary to allow access to the exit • Each opening must be protected by an approved self-closing fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency

  13. 1910.36(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate • At least 2 routes must be available • Except for sufficiently small occupancy – see (b)(3) • As far away from each other as practical in case one is blocked by fire or smoke • More than 2 required if all cannot evacuate through 2 exit routes • Life Safety Code can help with this determination

  14. 1910.36(c)(1) Exit Discharge • Must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside Exit Discharge Offices Storage Exit access Discharge Exit Fabricating shop

  15. 1910.36(c)(2) Exit Discharge • The street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space to which an exit discharge leads must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the exit route

  16. 1910.36(c)(3) Exit Discharge NOT AN EXIT NOT AN EXIT • Exit stairs that continue beyond the level of the exit discharge must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge

  17. 1910.36(d) Exit door must be unlocked • Must be able to open exit route door • From the inside at all times • Without keys, tools, or special knowledge • Panic bar is permissible • No device or alarm that could restrict use of route if device fails • Mental, penal, correctional facilities: exception with constant supervision & plan

  18. 1910.36(e)(1) A side-hinged exit door must be used • A side-hinged door must be used to connect any room to an exit route • Must swing out in the direction of exit travel if • room is designed for > 50 people or • room is a high hazard area

  19. 1910.36(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate • Must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served See factors for occupant load and capacity in NFPA Life Safety Code - Chapter 7

  20. 1910.36(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate • Exit route capacity may not decrease toward exit discharge

  21. 1910.36(g) Exit minimum height and width requirements 7-½ ft. 6 ft.- 8 in. • Ceiling at least 7’6” • Any projection from the ceiling  6’8” • Exit access  28 inches wide • Including all objects projecting into route

  22. 1910.36(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted. • Same minimum height and width • Additional requirements: • Guardrails on unenclosed sides • Covered if snow or ice likely to accumulate • Unless snow removed before hazard • Reasonably straight • Smooth, solid, level walkways • No dead end longer than 20 feet

  23. Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes 29 CFR 1910.37

  24. 1910.37(a) The danger to employees must be minimized • Exit routes must be kept free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or decorations • No exit route may lead toward high hazard area, unless shielded

  25. 1910.37(a) The danger to employees must be minimized • Exit routes free and unobstructed: No materials/equipment may be placed within exit route • Exit access must not go through a room that can be locked • Safeguards must be kept in working order

  26. 1910.37(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate • Exit routes adequately lighted • Clearly visible and marked by a sign reading "Exit" • No decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of exit route door

  27. 1910.37(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate • If the direction of travel to the exit is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit • Line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times Way to exit is not apparent

  28. 1910.37(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate • Each doorway or passage that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked "Not an Exit" or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet)

  29. 1910.37(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate • Each exit sign must be illuminated to a surface value of at least five foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light source and be distinctive in color • The word "Exit" in plainly legible letters 6” • Letters 3/4 inch thick

  30. 1910.37(d) Exit routes during construction, repairs, or alterations • Employees must not occupy a workplace until the exit routes are ready in occupied portion

  31. 1910.37(d) Exit routes during construction, repairs, or alterations • Employees must not be exposed to hazards from construction activities that are beyond the normal permissible conditions, or that would impede exiting the workplace

  32. 1910.37(e) Alarm system • Alarm system must be installed and maintained in operable condition • To warn of fire or other emergencies • Unless employees can promptly see or smell fire or hazard in time • Must comply with 1910.165 (in Subpart L)

  33. Emergency Action Plans 29 CFR 1910.38

  34. 1910.38 Emergency action plans (EAP) EAP • Emergency action plan: • In writing • Kept in the workplace • Available to employees for review • Employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees

  35. 1910.38(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan • Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency • Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments • Procedures for employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before evacuating

  36. 1910.38(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan • Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation • Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties • Name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by employees who need more information about the plan

  37. Alarms, training, review • Alarm system must use distinctive signals for each purpose, comply with 1910.165 • Designate and train employees to assist in safe, orderly evacuation of others • Review of EAP with each employee: • When plan developed or employee assigned • When employee’s responsibilities under the plan change • When the plan changes

  38. Fire Prevention Plans 29 CFR 1910.39

  39. 1910.39(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans • Any required fire prevention plan must: • Must be in writing, • Be kept in the workplace, and • Be made available to employees for review • Employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees

  40. 1910.39(c)(1) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan • List of all major fire hazards • Proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials • Potential ignition sources and their control • Type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard

  41. 1910.39(c)(1) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan, cont’d • Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste • Maintenance procedures for safeguards on heat-producing equipment to prevent ignition of combustible materials • Name or title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires • Name or title of employees responsible for control of fuel source hazards

  42. 1910.39(e) Employee information • An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are exposed. • An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.

  43. Fire Protection 29 CFR Subpart L

  44. Organization of 1910 Subpart L • 155 Scope, application, definitions • 156 Fire brigades • 157 Portable fire extinguishers • 158 Standpipe and hose systems • 159 Automatic sprinkler systems • 160-163 Fixed extinguishing systems • 164 Fire detection systems • 165 Employee alarm systems

  45. Scope, Application, and Definitions 29 CFR 1910.155

  46. Scope and Application • Fire brigades, fire suppression equipment, fire detection systems, alarm systems • Applies to all employments except maritime, construction, and agriculture

  47. Definitions • Class A fire: Ordinary combustible materials • Paper • Wood • Cloth • Some rubber and plastic. • Class B fire: • Flammable or combustible liquids • Flammable gases • Greases • Some rubber and plastic

  48. Definitions • Class C fire: Energized electrical equipment • Employee safety requires nonconductive extinguishing media • Class D fire: Combustible metals • Magnesium • Titanium • Zirconium • Sodium • Lithium • Potassium

  49. Definitions • Dry chemical: small particles of chemicals supplemented for dryness and flow • Bicarbonates • Potassium chloride • Monoammonium phosphate • Dry powder: compound used to extinguish or control Class D fires

  50. Definitions • Enclosed structure: • Has a roof or ceiling and at least 2 walls • May accumulate smoke, toxic gases and heat • Foam: Bubbles form a blanket over liquid, sealing combustible vapors • Gaseous agent: Diffuses uniformly to extinguish fires