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Digestion. School of Education - CCNY. Introduction. Digestion is defined as the breakdown of nutrients We consume: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats These are broken down into their simplest forms. From Beginning to End. Mouth Esophagus

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School of Education - CCNY

Liz Lauben

  • Digestion is defined as the breakdown of nutrients
  • We consume:
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • These are broken down into their simplest forms

Liz Lauben

from beginning to end
From Beginning to End
  • Mouth
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Anus

Liz Lauben

  • Mechanical digestion: the act of chewing
  • Carbohydrate digestion begins here
  • Saliva moistens food and contains the enzyme Salivary Amylase – breaks down complex carbs into simple sugars
  • Chemical Digestion: enzymes breaking down carbohydrates
  • Ball of moistened, partially digested food, known as the “BOLUS”, moves into the esophagus

Liz Lauben

  • Long tube through which “bolus” moves down into the stomach
  • The contraction of muscles pushes the food down – known as PERISTALSIS

Liz Lauben

  • Protein digestion begins here
  • Gastric Glands: Parietal Cells

Chief Cells

  • Chief Cells release HCl, the acidity kills foreign material and bacteria
  • Parietal Cells release the inactive enzyme Pepsinogen. This combines with HCl to create active form: Pepsin
  • Pepsin breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptide chains

Liz Lauben

just a reminder
Just a Reminder…
  • Both types of digestion are occurring in the stomach: Mechanical and Chemical
  • The churning of the stomach is considered mechanical digestion
  • The enzyme activity is considered chemical digestion
  • Chemical > Mechanical

Liz Lauben

small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Continuation of Carbohydrate and Protein Digestion; beginning of Fat digestion
  • LIVER: releases bile that breaks down fats into fatty acids
  • PANCREAS: releases pancreatic juices, of which completes protein digestion (proteins to amino acids) and carbohydrate digestion (complex sugars into simple monosaccharides)
  • Absorption of simple nutrients through villi occurs here

Liz Lauben

large intestine
Large Intestine
  • Unabsorbed material moves through large intestine, where water and salt are absorbed
  • This removal of liquid forms solid-like feces
  • Feces is stored in the colon
  • Feces is removed from the body, via the anus, by the process of ELIMINATION

Liz Lauben