Introduction • Cloning has the potential to create sentient and non-sentient life. • Mammalian cloning has been achieved through a nuclear transfer process as well as cell splitting. • Agricultural cloning is widely used in crops. • The cloning of mammalian life from adult cells using nuclear transfer leads to a host of ethical issues about the use of this technology.
How does cloning work? • http://www.pathfinder.com/TIME/cloning/home.html • http://www.cabi.org/ • http://library.advanced.org/24355/home.html • http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/srtscot/cloning.shtml
Professional Issues? • Mammalian cloning, although possible, involves high degrees of risks to both donor and recipient. • Spontaneous abortion, fetal size, etc. • The long range problems are as yet unknown. • Aging, etc. • Research into Dolly has revealed that she may have telomeres on her chromosomes similar to those from the cell from which she was derived. The telomeres are small pieces of DNA that help to protect chromosomes from damage. Very young animals have long telomeres, but as the animal ages, the telomeres are worn away.
Legal/Policy Issues? • 13 Euro States have banned Human Cloning. • U.S. has not yet passed legislation banning human cloning. It is presently voluntary! • States: • California and Rhode Island • 5 year moratorium • Michigan • permanent ban • Currently an International legal minefield.
Legal/Policy Issues? (contd.) • http://www.theage.com.au/daily/990318/news/news15.html • http://www.humancloning.org/legality.htm
Ethical Issues? • Physical harm to embryos • Dolly was 1 of 277, 276 perished! • Eugenics • Poor use of scarce resources • Human right to a unique identity • Treating People As Objects • Freedom of Scientific Inquiry
Ethical Issues? • http://bioethics.gov/pubs.html • http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~jones/tmp352/projects98/group1/home.html • (Excellent student project.) • http://alapadre.net/cloning.html
Stakeholders? • Individual being cloned • Mother carrying fetus • Spontaneously aborted fetuses • Potential offspring • Society
Possible actions? • Ban all cloning • Ban human cloning • Allow animal cloning for scientific research • Allow human cloning on a limited basis • Allow agricultural cloning
Consequences: • The greatest happiness is achieved by the least trauma to society. • Human cloning is fraught with dangers. • Δ Human cloning should be banned. • Sufficient scientific research can be gained by research into animals. • Δ Animal cloning should be permitted on a restricted basis. • Agricultural cloning can lead to total crop failure.
Individual Rights/Fairness: • Some religions and cultures consider the fetus to have human rights, therefore, the rights of the spontaneously aborted fetus is in violation of this right. • The cost of this procedure is prohibitive. Funds could be better used for other medical research. • The medical moral standard of “do no harm” is called into question.
Common Good: • Animal cloning may lead to new findings that will benefit humankind. • Agricultural cloning leads to more stable and predictable crops. • Human cloning may eventually lead to better quality of life.
Final Decision? • Human cloning should be banned. • Animal cloning should be allowed under restricted circumstances. • Caution should be used in Agricultural cloning.