Aligning ISAT & PSAE Vocabulary Claran Einfeldt, firstname.lastname@example.org Cathy Carter email@example.com http://www.cmath2.com
Agenda • Research - Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement • Embedded Activities • Videos of vocabulary instruction • Time for vocabulary review of strategies • Vocabulary Activities • Wrap up
Focusing on Academic Vocabulary to Build Background Knowledge Keys to unlocking the future
Virtual Experience Sensory Memory Representation Reading Background Knowledge Permanent Generate Key Vocabulary Record the terms above and write possible sentences
Check it out Fill in the blanks with words on the paragraph to develop a meaning for you
The questions that p_____ face as they raise chi____ from in ____ to adult life are not easy to an___. Both fa____ and m____ can become concerned when health problems such as co____ arise any time after the e____ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch____ should have plenty of s____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B____ and g____ should not share the same b____ or even sleep in the same r____. They may be afraid of the d____.
The questions that pourltrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark.
Schema • Framework, the learner’s general knowledge about a particular subject. • Provides a structure or guide for understanding. What do I know about . . .?
Without the appropriate schema, trying to understand a story, textbook, or classroom lesson is like finding your way through a new town without a map.
Knowledge of vocabulary is one of the best predictors of success in all school subjects.
Some 3 yr olds enter preschool knowing three times as many words as their less advantaged peers.
Some 6 yr olds have heard many thousands of words more than their peers by the time they enter 1st grade
The more words you know, the easier it is to learn new words because you have more “pegs” to hang the new words on
The percentage of English language learners has grown 105 percent since 1991 while the overall school population has grown 12 percent.
What students already know about content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information relative to the content. Marzano, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement, 2004, pg. 1
“In fact, given the relationship between academic background knowledge and academic achievement, one can make the case that it should be at the top of any list of interventions intended to enhance student achievement.” Marzano, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement, 2004, pg. 4
Academic Achievement at Three Levels of Academic Background Knowledge 1 Standard Deviation Variation Jana
Relationship Between Education and Yearly Income US Census, March 2003
Direct Experiences • Provide academically enriching experiences • Field trips to museums, art galleries, travel, exchange programs • Mentoring relationships
Indirect experiences • Background knowledge is stored in bimodal packets – move from specific to generalizations; includes linguistic and non-linguistic forms • Process of storing experiences in permanent memory can be enhanced • Background knowledge is multi-dimensional and its value is contextual – teachers must value the background knowledge of all learners • Even surface-level background knowledge is useful • Background knowledge manifest itself as vocabulary knowledge • Virtual experiences can enhance background knowledge
Virtual experiences • Reading as a form of virtual experience • SSR – Sustained silent reading • Language Interaction is a form of virtual experience • Talking and listening to others • Educational Television as a form of virtual experience
How does this translate for educators? • Goal to install background knowledge in permanent memory • Multiple exposures to target information for permanent memory • Focus on development of surface-level but accurate knowledge across broad areas • Instructional techniques focus on linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of background knowledge • Direct vocabulary instruction to create or enhance experiential knowledge • Relay on virtual experiences in working memory through wide reading, language interaction, and educational visual media
Changes in “The Lesson” Pre-reading activities Discussion Predictions Questioning Brainstorming Setting purpose Reading Assignment given Guided ACTIVE silent reading Independent reading Clarify, reinforce, extend know- ledge Discussion to see what they “should have” learned.
Direct Vocabulary Instruction A change from . . . Teacher presents word, students look up in dictionary, write definition and sentence.
Present descriptions, using everyday language with a word • Use linguistic and non-linguistic forms (language based and imagery based) • Multiple exposures to the words – extended mappings • Variety of ways • Various forms of identifying similarities and differences
Teaching word parts – roots and affixes • Different types of words require different types of instruction – grammar as nouns, verbs, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, etc. • Students should discuss the terms they are learning • Students should play with words • Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success
Six Step Process • Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term • Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words • Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term. • Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks. • Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another. • Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms.
Try it out • Possible sentences • PAVE • Frayer Model • Classification • Games