Part 6Vocabulary Chapter 14 Vocabulary Units
Vocabulary: Unit 1 Each of the following eight units will introduce you to important prefixes, suffixes, and root words, and give you vocabulary words using these word parts. Each unit will draw on what you learned in the previous units.
Number Prefixes uni - one qua(d) - four sept - seven mono - one tetra - four hept – seven bi - two quint – five oct - eight di - two pent - five du(o) - two nov - nine hex - six tri - three sex - six dec, dek - ten
unify to make or become a single unit. unicameral cam means “chamber.” Unicameral is a legislative body made up of only one house or chamber. bicameral having two groups in the lawmaking body. The bicameral U.S. Congress is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
univalve having a shell composed of a single piece, such as a snail. bivalve a water animal whose soft body is inside a shell of two parts hinged together, such as a clam or oyster. monochromatic of or pertaining to only one color, as in monochromatic pottery.
monogram initials of a person’s name in a design, such as are used on articles of clothing or stationery. monolith lith means “stone,” so a monolith is a single block or piece of stone of considerable size, sometimes carved into a column or large statue. The sphinx of Egypt is a monolith. monotonous sounded or uttered in one unvarying tone; lacking in variety.
monocle an eyeglass for one eye. monorail a single rail serving as a track for cars. monosyllabic having only one syllable like “what” or “how.”
biracial consisting of or representing members of two separate races. bipartisan made up of or supported by two political parties. bifocals eyeglasses in which each lens has two parts, one for reading and seeing nearby objects and the other for seeing things further away.
bisect sect means “to cut,” so bisect means to cut or divide into two equal parts. bigamy the act of marrying one person while already legally married to another. dichotomy division into two parts or kinds. Tomy is derived from temnien, meaning “to cut.”
duplex a house having separate apartments for two families. duplicate to make an exact copy of; to double. triplicate one of three identical items; to make threefold; triple.
triple made up of three. triannual done, occurring, or issued three times a year, as in a triannual magazine. trilogy a set of three plays, novels, or other creative works, which form a group, although each is a complete work.
quadrangle an open area surrounded by buildings on all four sides such as are often seen on college campuses. quatrain a stanza or poem of four lines. quadriceps a large, four-part muscle at the front of the thigh.
quadricentennial Cen means “100” and enn means “year,” so a quadricentennial is a 400th anniversary. tetrapod Pod means “foot,” so a tetrapod is a vertebrate having four legs or one that is descended from a four-legged ancestor. quintessence the fifth element; a perfect type or example of something.
pentathlon an athletic contest with five different track and field events. hexagram a six-pointed star-like figure. The Star of David is a hexagram. sextet a group of six singers or players.
heptagon a seven-sided figure. octet a group or stanza of eight lines; a company of eight singers or musicians. decimate to destroy or kill a large part of. In the 16th century, the word decimate meant to arbitrarily kill every tenth man as punishment for mutiny.
September • originally the seventh month. • Our calendar evolved from the original Roman calendar, • which began in March instead of January. • You can see that making March the first month • makes September the seventh month. • October • originally the eighth month. • November • originally the ninth month. • December • originally the tenth month.
Vocabulary 2 This unit addresses words having opposite meanings, such as “love” and “hate.” We will also introduce you to the word parts meter, equi, and a(n).
phil(o) - love bibliophile Since biblio means “book,” a bibliophile is a person who loves or collects books. philanderer a man who makes love to a woman he can’t or won’t marry. Ander means “male.” philanthropist a person who shows love for others by donating money or services to help them.
philosopher a person who offers views and theories on profound questions; “a lover of wisdom.” philharmonic loving music; a symphony or orchestra. philately the collection and study of postage stamps and post marks.
mis - hate; bad(ly) misanthrope a person who hates or distrusts people. misogynist Since gyn means “woman,” a misogynist is a person who hates or is hostile toward women. miscreant a vicious or depraved person. misconstrue to think of in a wrong way, to misunderstand.
misnomer a wrong name; an error in naming a person or thing. eu - good or well dys - bad, abnormal, difficult eulogy a speech or writing praising a person or thing, especially a speech praising a person who has just died.
euphemism a word or phrase that is used in place of another that is considered to be offensive. euphoria a feeling of great joy or excitement. euthanasia the act of putting someone to death painlessly or allowing them to die by withholding medical measures. “To euthanize” means to subject to euthanasia.
dysentery infectious disease of the large intestine marked by diarrhea. Dysentery literally means “bad bowel.” dyslexia any of a variety of reading disorders. meter - measure speedometer an instrument to measure the rate of travel in miles or kilometers.
odometer an instrument for measuring distance traveled, as in a car. pedometer an instrument that measures the distance walked or run by recording the number of steps taken. barometer an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.
macro - large or long micro - small macrocosm the universe considered as a whole. Cosmo means “universe.” microcosm a little world, a world in miniature; a group thought of as representing a larger group. microbe a disease-causing bacterium; a small bit of life. microfilm a film bearing a miniature photographic copy of graphic material.
equi - equal Don’t get equi confused with equus, which means “horse.” Equestrian competition involves horse-riding. equity fair or just. The value of a piece of property after subtracting the amount owed on it in mortgages and liens. equitable fair or just. equivalent equal in value, measure, force, or significance.
a(n) - not, without atypical not typical; irregular; abnormal. amoral without a sense of moral responsibility. aseptic free from the living germs of disease. atrophy a wasting away or a shrinking up of a part of the body.
anomaly not following the usual rule or pattern; abnormal. amorphous without a definite shape or form. anemia a condition in which a person’s blood does not have enough red blood cells. asymmetrical having or showing a lack of symmetry; not balanced.
poly - many polychromatic having or exhibiting many colors. polysyllabic consisting of four or more syllables. Pol y syl lab ic has five syllables. polytechnic pertaining to or offering instruction in a variety of industrial arts, applied sciences, or technical subjects.
Vocabulary 3 This unit introduces word parts related to direction and motion. vert--turn con--with in--not, opposite, into, within
avert a means “from,” and vert means “turn,” so the literal meaning of avert is “to turn from.” invert Here in means “opposite,” so when you invert something you are turning it upside down. vertigo a dizzy feeling, especially the feeling that everything is spinning around. subvert to overturn or undermine something established.
convert to turn from one form, use, or belief to another. As a noun, con’vert, with the stress on the first syllable, means a person who has changed from one belief or religion to another. divert to turn aside. versatile able to turn with ease from one thing to another. vertebra(e) any one of the bones that make up the spinal column, or backbone.
mis, mit—send re--back; again dis--apart; away ad--toward mission a special duty or errand that a person or group is sent to do by a church, government, or other entity. A place where a group of missionaries live and work. admit Ad means “toward,” so the literal meaning of admit is to “send toward, or to let go.”
submissive willing to give in or obey another; humble or obedient. remit (remission) Re means “back or again.” Remit means “to send back,” or “to let go.” intermission a stopping for a time; an interruption. The original meaning of the word was to “send between.” intermittent stopping and starting again from time to time.
dismiss Dis means “away,” so the literal meaning of dismiss is “to send away, or to tell or allow to leave.” emissary A person sent on a special mission. emit to send out or give forth.
ven--come circum—around prevent to keep from happening; to stop. The literal meaning is “to come before or to act in anticipation of.” convention a meeting of members or delegates from various places. The literal meaning is “coming with.” circumvent to get around often by using sly or tricky methods.
se--apart; away from separate to keep or put apart. seclude to keep away from others; to remove from social contact. Clude is derived from claudere, meaning “to shut, or close.” The literal meaning for seclude is “to close away from.” segregation the practice of keeping people of different religious, racial, or ethnic groups apart from each other.
sequ (secut)--following consecutive following in a regular order without a break. sequence one thing following after another. sequel a literary or film work that takes up and continues the narrative of a preceding work. consequence the effect, result, or outcome of something occurring earlier.
dia--through; across; apart; thoroughly pro--forward log(ue)--speech; word diagonal Gonia means “angle,” so diagonal means “connecting two non-adjacent angles.” It also means “going across in a slanting direction.” dialect a form of language that is used only in a certain place or with a certain group. lect means “to speak,” so the literal meaning is “to speak across.”
dialog(ue) conversation between two or more persons; an exchange of ideas or opinions on a particular issue with a view to reaching a friendly agreement. diagnosis Gnosis means “to know,” so a diagnosis means “to thoroughly examine or know all the facts to determine the nature of a disease.” prognosis Pro is a prefix meaning “forward,” so a prognosis is a forecast or prediction of how a disease will probably develop in a person and what the chances are that the person will get well.
progressive moving forward. His progressive improvement in math is impressive. duc--lead in--into reduce to lead back; to decrease. abduction to take someone away forcefully; a kidnapping. The literal meaning is “to lead away.”
conduct to lead or guide. conducive helping to bring about; contributing. seduce to lead away, lead astray. deduct to lead away; subtract induce to lead or move by persuasion or influence; to bring about or cause.
Vocabulary 4 This unit begins with words with inter, intra, and medius, ped, capt and cept, and cap and corp. It concludes with “blood relations” and cide. inter--between; among intra--within; inside medius--middle
interpersonal between persons. intrapersonal self-knowledge as in intrapersonal intelligence. interloper a person who intrudes into the affairs or business of others. interlude an intervening episode; an interval in the course of action.
interject to interrupt with; to insert. intercede to come between or plead on another’s behalf. intervene to come between. intermediate coming between two other things or happenings; in the middle. intermediary medius means “middle.” An intermediary is a go-between or mediator.
ped--child The Latin prefix ped also means “foot” as in pedal and pedestrian. Don’t get the two meanings confused. pediatrician a doctor who takes care of babies and children. pedagogy comes from the Greek word part paidos, meaning “child,” and agogos, meaning “leader.” In Latin, a pedaogue was a slave who escorted children to school and then was responsible for supervising them. Later the term came to refer to a teacher. Today the word refers to teaching or the science of teaching.
pedophile an adult who has a sexual desire for a child. pedantic showing off learning in a boring way, or one who pays too much attention to the boring details of a subject. The term originally referred to a schoolmaster.
capt, cept--hold; seize; take captivity the condition of being held by force. capability the power to do something. capacious able to hold much.
deception If we practice deception, we are “taking” something from someone by fraud. intercept to take or seize on the way (between).
cap--head corp--body decapitate to cut off the head caption a title at the head of an article in a newspaper or magazine. capital punishment the killing of someone by law as punishment for a crime. corporal punishment physical punishment (of the body) as in whipping or spanking.