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The Khilafat Movement.
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The Khilafat Movement The Khilafat movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
Why was it started? It stared due to the treatment of Turkey after the First World War. Turkey was a muslim country and its leader was considered the head of worldwide islamic community. His empire included Makkah, Madina and Jerusalem. When the British threatened to take their territory away, the muslims of India were outraged and started the movement to protect their sultan and their religion.
Partitioning The Ottoman empire, having sided with the Central Powers during World War I, suffered a major military defeat. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) reduced its territorial extent and diminished its political influence but the victorious European powers promised to protect the Ottoman emperor's status as the Caliph. However, under the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), territories such as Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt severed from the empire. Within Turkey, a pro-Western nationalist movement arose, Turkish national movement. Pursuant to Atatürk's Reforms, the Republic of Turkey abolished the position of Caliphate in 1924 and transferred its powers within Turkey to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
Khilafat in South Asia A prominent Muslim cleric and journalist, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar had spent four years in prison for preaching resistance to the British and support for the caliphate. Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali joined with other Muslim leaders to form the All India Khilafat Committee. The organization was based in Lucknow, India.They aimed to build political unity amongst Muslims and use their influence to protect the caliphate.
Collapse In wake of these disturbances, the Ali brothers began distancing themselves from Gandhi and the Congress. The Ali brothers criticised Gandhi's commitment to non-violence and severed their ties with them after he suspended all non-cooperation movement after the killing of 22 policemen at Chauri Chaura in 1922. Although holding talks with the British and continuing their activities, the Khilafat struggle weakened as Muslims were divided between working for the Congress, the Khilafat cause and the Muslim League. The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa Kemal's forces, who overthrew the Ottoman rule to establish a pro-Western, secularrepublic in independent Turkey.
Consequences • It united the muslims and hindus and was one of the first steps towards independence from british rule. • It showed the muslims that they had political power and were’nt just servants of british or hindus. • Many people lost their jobs and many students lost their education because of the non-cooperation policy. • It started more fights between muslims and hindus and was seen as an important step in moving muslims nearer to gaining an independent islamic state
Legacy The Khilafat struggle evokes controversy and strong opinions. The Ali brothers are regarded as founding-fathers of Pakistan, while Azad, Dr. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Khan are widely celebrated as national heroes in India.