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The Abolitionist Movement. Early Opposition to slavery (242). From the earliest days of the Republic many Americans opposed slavery Some founders knew it would be difficult to remain true to the ideals of liberty and equality if we continued to allow slavery

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The Abolitionist Movement

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early opposition to slavery 242
Early Opposition to slavery (242)
  • From the earliest days of the Republic many Americans opposed slavery
  • Some founders knew it would be difficult to remain true to the ideals of liberty and equality if we continued to allow slavery
  • Certain religious groups in the North and South argued slavery was a sin ( Baptists and Quakers)
different approaches to abolition
Different Approaches to Abolition
  • Gradualism
  • Colonization
  • Early anti-slavery societies supported gradualism
    • Gradualism- approach or belief that slavery had to be ended gradually (slowly)


    • Stop slave traders from bringing new slaves into the U.S.
    • Then phase out (slowly end)slavery in the North and Upper South
    • Finally, ending slavery in the Lower South

In your own words, what does the word Compensation mean?

Something, typically money, awarded to someone as a payment for loss, injury, or suffering

gradualism continued
Gradualism (Continued)
  • In this theory/strategy for ending slavery, Slaveholders would be compensated for their loss of slave(s)
  • Supporters of gradualism thought this would give the South’s economy time to adjust to the loss of enslaved labor
colonization 242 243
Colonization (242-243)
  • The first antislavery societies believed that ending slavery would not end racism in the United States
  • Many thought the best solution to ending U.S. slavery was to send African Americans back to their ancestral homelands in Africa
  • December 1816 antislavery reformers created the American Colonization Society (ACS) to move African Americans to Africa
    • Supporters included: James Madison, James Monroe, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John Marshall
  • In 1821, The American Colonization Society (ACS) acquired (got) land in West Africa
  • In 1822, Free African Americans began boarding ships chartered by the ACS to take them to Africa
  • They established a colony that became the country of Liberia
  • Liberians declared independence in 1847
  • Adopted a constitution based off the U.S. Constitution
  • Named the capital Monrovia after president James Monroe

Former Liberian flag (1827-1847)

Liberian Flag to present day

colonization s shortcomings
Colonization’s Shortcomings
  • Despite the founding of Liberia colonization was never a realistic solution:

1)Cost of transporting African Americans was too high

2)The ACS relied on donations

3)Moving the 1.5 million Africans Americans to Africa was nearly impossible

4)Also, most African Americans regarded the U.S. as their home and di not want to move

    • 12,000 of 1.5 million African Americans went to Africa Between 1821-1860
  • Gradualism and Colonization-main goals of anti-slavery groups until the 1830’s
  • New idea- Abolition
  • Abolitionists argued that enslaved African Americans should be freed immediately without gradual measures or compensation
abolition 243
Abolition (243)
  • Gained support in 1830’s for a number of reasons
  • Idea came from the Second Great Awakening

-sin and repentance (?)

Repentance- ask forgiveness

-abolitionists believed slavery was an “enormous evil”

david walker
David Walker

1st well known advocate (supporter/believer)of abolition

Published Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World

In this pamphlet he advocated violence and rebellion as the only way to end slavery

william lloyd garrison
William Lloyd Garrison

Credited for being a main contributor to:

The rapid development of a large national abolitionist movement in the 1830’s

1831- moved to Boston and founded the antislavery newspaper entitled the Liberator

In this paper he shared his disapproval of colonization and attacked the Constitution for not banning slavery

Garrison was clear in his beliefs: “slavery was immoral and slaveholders were evil

Called for immediate and complete Emancipation (?)

Emancipation-Freeing of all enslaved people

other abolitionist leaders
Other Abolitionist Leaders
  • Theodore Weld- one of the most effective leaders, recruiting and training many abolitionists for the American Anti-Slavery Society
other abolitionist leaders1
Other Abolitionist Leaders



  • Arthur and Lewis Tappan- two devote (?) and wealthy brothers from New York City, helped finance the movement


female abolitionists
Female Abolitionists

Supporter, promoter, believer

  • Lucretia Mott-a women’s rights advocate (?) -often spoke out in favor of abolitionism as well
female abolitionists1
Female Abolitionists
  • Sarah and Angelina Grimke –two South Carolina sisters moved North to work openly against slavery



african american abolitionists
African American Abolitionists
  • Free African Americans played a major role in the abolitionist movement
  • By 1850 190,000 free blacks lived in the North
    • Many of these individuals participated in abolitionism
    • These individuals endured prejudice but still enjoyed being free
  • African Americans established over 50 abolitionist societies prior to Garrison launching his newspaper called the Liberator
sojourner truth
Sojourner Truth
  • She gained her freedom in 1827 when the state of New York freed all remaining slaves
  • In 1840’s she gave antislavery speeches that drew huge crowds
  • One of the most prominent African Americans in the abolitionist movement
  • 1838 escaped slavery (posing as sailor)
  • During his time in slavery he managed to find clever ways to learn to read and write
  • Douglass published his own antislavery newspaper called the North Star
  • He also wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845
the response to abolitionism
The Response to Abolitionism
  • In the North – mixture of reactions from support, indifference, and opposition
  • In the South –They felt their way of life was under attack
north s reaction to abolitionism
North’s Reaction to Abolitionism
  • Many opposed slavery but some opposed abolition even more
  • They saw it as a threat to the existing social system
  • Some whites including prominent business people warned it would lead to war between the North and South
  • Many in the North also did not want to see the South’s economy crumble

Think, Pair, Share

Imagine you are an American citizen at this time, why might you believe the South’s economy would fall apart with abolition (ending of slavery)?


Many in the North also did not want to see the South’s economy crumble. Why?

  • Northern Banks would not get the money owed to them by Southern planters
  • Also, Northern textile mills needed the cotton produced in the South
  • Some feared war
  • Others though it would cause an influx (flood) of free blacks in the North
  • Mobs in Northern cities often attacked Abolitionists
  • In Boston a mob stoned and almost hanged Garrison
  • Weld was often attacked after he gave public speeches
  • Some were even killed
    • Ex: Elijah P. Lovejoy killed trying to protect his printing press
  • However…
  • Northerners hated Southern slave-catchers, who kidnapped African American runaways in the North & brought them back to the South
  • In response, some Northern states passed personal liberty laws restricting slave recapture
reaction in the south
Reaction in the South
  • North –industrial
  • South still agricultural still relied on slave labor to harvest cotton
  • South Carolina’s governor called slavery a national benefit
nat turner
Nat Turner
  • Turner was a slave who led a slave rebellion killing over 50 Virginians
  • Southerners blamed Garrison’s newspaper called the _______newspaper, which did not even circulate in the South (?)
  • Southerners demanded the suppression of abolitionist material as a condition of staying in the Union(?)


To put an end to forcibly

southern response
Southern Response
  • Southern postal workers refused to deliver Abolitionist newspapers
  • Under Southern pressure the House of Representatives passed a gag rule – this order forced all abolitionist petitions (formal requests) to be pushed away without debate
  • Caused a great uproar
  • William Lloyd Garrison started this movement, thousands of others struggled to keep it going
  • This reminded the nation that the country was divided on the institution of slavery and other issues