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Khilafat Movement 1919 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Khilafat Movement 1919. Started by Indian Muslims to support Ottomans/Turkish Muslims. Khilafat Movement 1919. Background Ottoman caliph was considered the spiritual leader of the Muslims. Ottoman Empire included the holy sites of the Muslims i.e. Makkah , Madina and Jerusalem.

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slide1

Khilafat Movement 1919

Started by Indian Muslims to support Ottomans/Turkish Muslims

slide2

Khilafat Movement 1919

  • Background
  • Ottoman caliph was considered the spiritual leader of the Muslims.
  • Ottoman Empire included the holy sites of the Muslims i.e. Makkah, Madina and Jerusalem
slide3

Background (cont.)

  • After defeat in WW1, lands of the Empire controlled by various countries e.g. Istanbul by Russia, Cyprus by Britain
  • Muslim holy sites were under threat
slide4

Background (cont.)

  • Through the treaty of Sevres (signed by Turkey in 1920) the Empire was abolished
  • Caliph Mehmed declared Jihad and invited all Muslims.
  • Thus Indian Muslims started the Khilafat Movement
slide5

Leaders of KhilafatMovement

  • Maulana Muhammad Ali
  • MaulanaShaukat Ali
  • MaulanaAbulKalam Azad
  • (Maulana Muhammad Ali was educated at Aligarh College and Oxford University England)
slide7

Aims of Khilafat Movement

  • To give power back to Ottoman Caliph
  • To gain independence for India
slide8

Action taken:

  • The leaders went to London to protest about European policy towards Islam.
  • Expressed their side of view and Muslim feeling about foreign rule of Islamic sites in Arabia, Syria and Palestine.
slide9

British response

  • They listened to them politely but ignored their requests.
  • This disappointed Muslims. Now they decided to work for the Indian independence.
slide10

Khilafat Movement and Gandhi

  • Gandhi was invited to Khilafat meetings, became only non-Muslim member of Executive Committee .
  • Gandhi invited Muslims to join his ‘satyagraha’ against British.
  • Muslims joined enthusiastically.
slide11

Hindu-Muslim together:

  • For the first time in Indian history Hindu-Muslim unity was at its peak.
  • The words ‘Khilafat’ and ‘Swaraj’ were on everyone’s lips.
  • Rural people misunderstood the word and took it as originated from ‘khilaf’ (means against)
slide12

Under Gandhi’s satyagraha

  • people
  • Boycotted British goods.
  • Refused to pay taxes
  • Went on strikes.
  • Refused to join the army.
  • Students left the British educational institutes.
slide14

Jinnah disapproves of Gandhi’s methods

  • Jinnah thought satyagrahawas a good ideabutpeople were not yet ready to be non violent.
  • It would lead to chaos and destruction of institutions/all departments.
slide15

Jinnah disapproves of Gandhi’s methods

  • Gandhi, as a Congress leader, had support of various sections of society with one common factor i.e. wish for independence
  • Gandhi called for widespread satyagraha (1920).
slide16

Jinnah disapproves of Gandhi’s methods

  • Jinnah spoke out bravely against Gandhi’s policies at the annual Congress meeting.
  • In 1920 he resigned from Congress
  • Jinnah was proved correct later.
slide17

Problems for Khilafat Movement

  • Hijrat (Migration) to Afghanistan.
  • Moplah Rebellion
  • Violence at ChauriChaura
slide18

Problems for Khilafat Movement

  • Hijrat (Migration) to Afghanistan (1920)
  • By 1800 Muslim peasants. WHY
  • Believed that British had made India unfit to live for Muslims.
  • Expected to be welcomed by their Muslim brethren
slide19

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Hijrat (Migration) to Afghanistan (1920) cont.

  • What happened to them?
  • After a long journey they reached the Afghan border BUT
  • Were not allowed to cross the border.
  • Had to return back.
  • Many died in the way back
slide20

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Moplah Rebellion (1921)

Rebellion in South India by Moplahs.

Who were Moplahs?

They were the Muslims, descendents of Arab settlers .

slide21

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Moplah Rebellion (1921) cont.

  • Events/What happened?
  • Rose against British rule.
  • Fought British soldiers
  • Declared a Khilafat Kingdom.
  • Many Europeans were killed.
slide22

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Moplah Rebellion (1921) cont.

  • Events/What happened?
  • Hindus were attacked.
  • Hindu houses/temples were destroyed.
  • Many (Hindus) were forced to convert to Islam
slide23

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Moplah Rebellion (1921) cont.

  • British action:
  • Strict action was taken.
  • 4000 Moplahs were killed.
  • Many thousands were arrested.
  • Blame was on the Khilafat Movement.
slide24

Problems for Khilafat Movement

  • Violence at ChauriChaura (1922)
  • An east Indian village
  • What happened during violence?
  • More violence followed that year.
  • 22 policemen were burnt to death in their police station by an angry crowd in ChauriChaura.
slide25

Problems for Khilafat Movement

Violence at ChauriChaura (1922)

  • Gandhi admitted that he had made a Himalayan blunder in encouraging satyagraha in people who were not ready.
  • Gandhi was arrested and put into prison for two years. (found guilty of promoting disaffection towards British rule
slide26

End of Khilafat Movement (1922)

  • It ended in 1922 when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk abolished caliphate in Turkey.
slide27

End of Khilafat Movement (1922)

  • Although Khilafat Movement could not achieve its aims but it united Muslims and Hindus for a time. In the later years, great Hindu-Muslims violence took place in India