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Christian Zionism and Early 20 th c Palestine. IAFS/JWST 3650. Outline. Christian Zionism The “Empty Land” Myth Palestinian Nationalism. Christian Zionism in England. 1290 : expulsion of English Jews 17 th c: resettlement of English Jews English support for Jewish Restoration.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Christian Zionism
  • The “Empty Land” Myth
  • Palestinian Nationalism
christian zionism in england
Christian Zionism in England
  • 1290: expulsion of English Jews
  • 17th c: resettlement of English Jews
  • English support for Jewish Restoration
restorationist beliefs
RestorationistBeliefs
  • Jewish return to Holy Land
  • and Jewish conversion to Christianity
  • >>> Second Coming
isaiah 60 9 12
Isaiah 60:9-12
  • 10And the sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee . . .
  • 12 For the nation and kingdom that will not serve thee shall perish.
lord shaftesbury 1801 1885
Lord Shaftesbury (1801-1885)
  • Religious faith in restoration
  • Imperial justifications
  • Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (failure)
british views on zionism
British Views on Zionism
  • Christian support
  • Jewish opposition
so what
So What?
  • British Christian support for Zionist settlement as important context for Britain’s WWI actions
the empty land myth
The Empty Land Myth
  • “A land without people for a people without a land”
  • Phrase attributed to Herzl
  • Zangwill, 1901: “Palestine is a country without a people; the Jews are a people without a country.”

Zangwill

origins of empty land myth
Origins of “Empty Land” Myth
  • Shaftesbury, 1853: “a country without a nation' needed 'a nation without a country”
  • Stoddard, 1897: “you are a people without a country; there is a country without a people”

Shaftesbury

jewish resistance to empty land myth
Jewish Resistanceto “Empty Land” Myth
  • AhadHa’am, 1891: “this is not the case”
  • Nordau, 1897: reproach to Herzl

Nordau

Ha’am

jewish resistance to empty land myth1
Jewish Resistanceto “Empty Land” Myth
  • Epstein, 1907: “there is in our beloved land an entire nation”
  • Ben-Gurion: “Palestine is not an empty country”

Ben-

Gurion

Epstein

quickthink
Quickthink

Why is it significant that the “empty land” phrase originated (twice) with gentile Zionists?

palestinian nationalism
Palestinian Nationalism
  • Role of religious festivals and holy sites
  • Nationalist as framework for tension
  • NajibAzouri, 1905: opposition between “the awakening of the Arab nation and the latent effort of the Jews to reconstitute . . . Israel”
palestinian nationalism1
Palestinian Nationalism
  • 1908: al-Karmal
  • 1911: Filastin
palestinian nationalism2
Palestinian Nationalism
  • 1908 as watershed
  • Young Turk revolution
  • Jaffa clash
palestinian nationalism3
Palestinian Nationalism
  • Fulacontroversy
  • Zionism-Crusader link
  • 1911 clash at Fula
palestinian reactions yusuf al khalidi 1899
Palestinian Reactions:Yusuf al-Khalidi (1899)
  • “Historically it is your country” but Zionism’s implementation would require “brute force.”
  • “Let Palestine be left in peace.”

Yusuf al-Khalidi

palestinian reactions
Palestinian Reactions
  • RuhiBey al-Khalidi, 1909: Jews will “displace Arab farmers”
  • General Summons to the Palestinians, 1914: “In the name of our country, Palestine . . . do not sell” your land

RuhiBey al-Khalidi

jewish migration
Jewish Migration
  • 1880-1914: ~3 million Jews left Russia
  • 1904-1914: 90% of Zionist settlers left Palestine
  • Bilu’s lasting influence
palestine before wwi
Palestine before WWI
  • 40 Jewish settlements
  • 60,000 Jews (~8% of population)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Christian support for Zionist settlement
  • “Empty Land” idea
    • Christian roots
    • Zionist practice
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Growing Palestinian nationalism
  • Limited appeal of Zionist idea