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    1. QUESTION NOW THAT I HAVE ALL THIS BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON READING AND READING CURRICULA, NOW WHAT?

    2. ANSWER... SINCE YOU KNOW WHAT TO LOOK FOR AND EVALUATE FOR, YOU CAN NOW PROBLEM SOLVE MY READING NEEDS AT TIER 1.

    4. Three Tier Problem Solving System

    5. TIER 1. Problem Identification

    6. Remember in identifying a discrepancy we need to know what is expected and what is occurring in a given situation Is there a problem? Yes and noit all depends on what is expected given the situation. If school is closed then we do not have a problem but if it is a normal school day and students are expected to be in seats, then it is a problem.Remember in identifying a discrepancy we need to know what is expected and what is occurring in a given situation Is there a problem? Yes and noit all depends on what is expected given the situation. If school is closed then we do not have a problem but if it is a normal school day and students are expected to be in seats, then it is a problem.

    7. Example of a Universal Problem ACADEMIC Area

    9. Screening Detects a Problem with Core Curriculum Classwide Intervention Large Group Most students will respond Typically this is a general education responsibility Joe Witt, www.isteep.com/compcenters

    10. Start out and ask if one kid in red is a problem compared to a standard then add the rest of the class and ask againStart out and ask if one kid in red is a problem compared to a standard then add the rest of the class and ask again

    11. Universal Screening Identified School Wide Reading Deficits in Vail In One arizona district, most students were in red zone during initial school wide assessmentIn One arizona district, most students were in red zone during initial school wide assessment

    12. At what tier should problem solving occur?

    13. After Grade Wide Intervention--No Systemic Problem Following classwide intervention, most students improved above the line to the instructional range. Some did not. They lacked a good RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTIONFollowing classwide intervention, most students improved above the line to the instructional range. Some did not. They lacked a good RESPONSE TO INSTRUCTION

    14. Core Program A core program is the base reading program designed to provide instruction on the essential areas of reading for the majority of students schoolwide. In general, the core program should enable 80% or more of students to attain schoolwide reading goals. Component: A core instructional program of validated efficacy adopted and implemented schoolwide ? An effective, scientifically-based core program is essential. Without an effective core program implemented consistently across classrooms and grades, a schools ability to teach all students to read is seriously diminished.Component: A core instructional program of validated efficacy adopted and implemented schoolwide ? An effective, scientifically-based core program is essential. Without an effective core program implemented consistently across classrooms and grades, a schools ability to teach all students to read is seriously diminished.

    15. Gap? A rate of 80% has been suggested by many researchers and policy makers nationally, as the rate needed for Core Instruction Is there a discrepancy between what is expected (~80) and what is occurring (your schools performance)

    18. At what tier should problem solving occur? Tier 1.Are the majority (80% or more) of students responding to the curriculum at each grade level and on each skill? If No, then focus on Tier I If Yes, consider Tier 2 interventions for some students

    20. 1. Standard-Based Approaches Illinois AIMSweb Standards Tied to ISAT and Minnesota State Oregon DIBELS Standards With a Standards Based Approach, Use Linkages to High Stakes Tests The desired outcome is to have the student meet standards on High Stakes Tests.

    22. Standards-Based Approaches and Universal Screening Here is a standards-based approach for students in Illinois. Red scores are those students not likely to pass the next high stakes test. Green are highly like to pass. Yellow is in between. The number of words read correctly is the score from R-CBM. Amys score of 140 shows her likely to pass. Billys score of 38 WRC shows him unlikely to pass. Another reason for intensive interventionHere is a standards-based approach for students in Illinois. Red scores are those students not likely to pass the next high stakes test. Green are highly like to pass. Yellow is in between. The number of words read correctly is the score from R-CBM. Amys score of 140 shows her likely to pass. Billys score of 38 WRC shows him unlikely to pass. Another reason for intensive intervention

    28. Steps for determining percentages of risk categories Low risk: Count the number of students scoring at the 50%ile or higher. Determine percentage. Is it 80% or higher? High risk: Count the number of students scoring at the 25%ile or lower. Determine percentage. Is it 15% or higher? Some risk: Count the number of students between the 50th and 25thile. Determine percentage. Is it 5% or higher?

    32. Making triangles in excel (cont.) Series In: Select Rows NEXT> Title graph as you want Go to data labels. Select Show Value Select New Sheet You can change color of tiers to clicking on each tier and selecting new color

    33. Aimsweb Feature!! See Aimsweb account

    36. Problem Analysis Foundational Concepts Tier 1

    37. Tier 1. Problem Analysis

    39. Potential Hypotheses 1. Core program is missing most instructional elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.) 2. Core program is missing some instructional elements necessary for our students- more reinforcement and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.) 3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)

    43. REVIEW:Evaluating Core Programs: Instructional Content (ingredients) Essential elements of scientifically based programs include: phonemic awareness instruction systematic, explicit phonics instruction fluency instruction vocabulary instruction comprehension instruction Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Automaticity and Fluency with the Code: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning.

    44. REVIEW: Design and Delivery (recipe) Features of well-designed programs include: Explicitness of instruction for teacher and student Making it obvious for the student Systematic & coordinated instruction Building and developing skills Opportunities for practice with Cumulative review Modeling and practicing the skill Revisiting and practicing skills to increase strength Aligned Student materials/Integration of Big Ideas Linking essential skills ? The design and delivery of the essential features (phonological awareness, fluency, etc.) must be examined within the reading program. Explicitness: the material must provide a clear method/strategy for teaching the instructional objective.. The more explicit the wording the greater the probability of learning. Systematic & supportive instruction: Systematic: building skills sequentially Supportive: When initially teaching a skill, instruction must support the learner to understand the crucial point. As the child becomes more successful at the skill, the instructional support can be lessened to build independence. Opportunities to Practice: Provide students many opportunities to actively engage in the skill. This opportunity to practice also provides the teacher immediate feedback on student understanding and whether additional instruction is needed. Programs need to provide sufficient examples to model and enough additional examples for students to practice the skill. Cumulative review: The reading program must have regular and cumulative review of all essential skills to ensure maintenance. Integration of Big Ideas: Reading programs need to planfully sequence individual skills, but also strategically and overtly link skills to one another. Rather than having the learner think of PA and alphabetic principle as separate isolated skills the program should link the sounds in word to letters to develop greater understanding of each big idea.? The design and delivery of the essential features (phonological awareness, fluency, etc.) must be examined within the reading program. Explicitness: the material must provide a clear method/strategy for teaching the instructional objective.. The more explicit the wording the greater the probability of learning. Systematic & supportive instruction: Systematic: building skills sequentially Supportive: When initially teaching a skill, instruction must support the learner to understand the crucial point. As the child becomes more successful at the skill, the instructional support can be lessened to build independence. Opportunities to Practice: Provide students many opportunities to actively engage in the skill. This opportunity to practice also provides the teacher immediate feedback on student understanding and whether additional instruction is needed. Programs need to provide sufficient examples to model and enough additional examples for students to practice the skill. Cumulative review: The reading program must have regular and cumulative review of all essential skills to ensure maintenance. Integration of Big Ideas: Reading programs need to planfully sequence individual skills, but also strategically and overtly link skills to one another. Rather than having the learner think of PA and alphabetic principle as separate isolated skills the program should link the sounds in word to letters to develop greater understanding of each big idea.

    45. Choose Hypotheses 1. Core program is missing most instructional elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.) 2. Core program is missing some instructional elements necessary for our students- more reinforcement and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.) 3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)

    46. Intervention Planning

    47. Potential Hypotheses 1. Core program is missing most instructional elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.) 2. Core program is missing some instructional elements necessary for our students- more reinforcement and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.) 3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)

    48. WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS? PHONEMIC AWARENESS PHONICS FLUENCY VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION

    50. WHICH OF THE FIVE BIG AREAS? PHONEMIC AWARENESS PHONICS FLUENCY VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION

    60. What Criteria. Differentiate High SES communities from Low SES communities?? Educationally, the main criteria are background knowledge and language development. The lower the SES, the MORE systematic and explicit interventions need to be in all 5 big areas of reading.

    61. Oregon Reading First website: Professional Development link http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/profdev.php Scroll about half way down: Selecting a Core Program

    62. Potential Hypotheses 1. Core program is missing most instructional elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.) 2. Core program is missing some instructional elements necessary for our students- more reinforcement and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.) 3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)

    67. LETS LOOK AT THAT MENU OF IDEAS AGAIN FOR: 5 BIG AREAS OF READING: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension

    68. PHONEMIC AWARENESS KPALS, 1ST GR. PALS MICHAEL HEGGERTY PROGRAM

    69. PHONICS KPALS 1st Gr. PALS JOLLY PHONICS/GRAMMAR REWARDS-Gr. 3-5, or Gr. 4-8 SRA READING MASTERY, HORIZONS CORRECTIVE READING-Decoding

    70. FLUENCY ? 1st Gr. PALS ? 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS VOCABULARY THROUGH MORPHEMES QUICK READS READ NATURALLY ? REPEATED PHRASES

    71. VOCABULARY BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE (resource) ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY VOCABULARY THROUGH MORPHEMES LANGUAGE FOR THINKING LANGUAGE FOR LEARNING

    72. COMPREHENSION METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES/THINK ALOUDS COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING (CSR) EARLY SUCCESS (Gr. K-2) SRA CORRECTIVE READING-COMPREHENSION STRAND

    76. Criteria for intervention selection IN ONE DISTRICT They are inexpensive to purchase: High Impact/Lower Cost/Effective//Easy to Implement There is little training required for implementation and high treatment integrity. There can be flexibility with implementation, as Multiple implementers are possible: reading specialists, resource specialists, general education teachers, paraprofessionals, and/or parents.

    82. Key: Summary Table for FCRR Reports Type of Program 1 = Core Reading Program 2 = Supplemental or Intervention Program 3 = Technology-Based Program 4 = Program that may be implemented by a tutor or mentor 5 = Intervention or Remedial Program for students above third grade Reading Component (PA = Phonemic Awareness, P = Phonics, F = Fluency, V = Vocabulary, C = Comprehension) += some aspects of this component taught and/or practiced ++= most aspects of this component taught and/or practiced +++= all aspects of this component taught and/or practiced n/a= Not Addressed in this program. In other words, this element of reading is not a goal of this program. Special Considerations a. explicit b. systematic c. student materials aligned d. ample practice opportunities provided e. practice only f. oral language only g. phonemic awareness and phonics program h. phonics program i. fluency program j. vocabulary program k. comprehension program l. extensive professional development required m. expertise required to make informed curriculum decisions n. extensive organization of materials required o. school-wide implementation required

    83. Potential Hypotheses 1. Core program is missing most instructional elements necessary for our students. (Adopt a new core.) 2. Core program is missing some instructional elements necessary for our students- more reinforcement and/or practice is needed. (Supplement your core.) 3. Core program is not implemented with fidelity. (Implement with higher integrity.)

    87. Sample IPF:Second Grade Can use the IPF to document all three aspects of a comprehensive intervention. Come up with a couple examples of that (when we come back from break). Emphasize how the plan is derived from the validated hypothesis.Can use the IPF to document all three aspects of a comprehensive intervention. Come up with a couple examples of that (when we come back from break). Emphasize how the plan is derived from the validated hypothesis.

    88. Examining Treatment Integrity Teacher self-report/implementation logs: Teacher may be interviewed regarding steps followed during intervention or keep a log of the steps implemented Ratings scales: Written step-by-step intervention plan can be used as a checklist & implementer would complete checklist Direct Observation: Of teacher behavior could be conducted periodically during intervention (use of IPF) Permanent Products: Teacher/student created products that would demonstrate the intervention components were implemented Most common methods arranged hierarchically (least to most accurate, least to most reactive). Teacher self-report, rating scales, interviews are considered indirect assessment. Direct observation considered direct assessment. How to report the integrity: Sum number of components correctly implemented and divide this number by the total number of components = % integrity Recommended two estimates of integrity be calculated Component integrity: calculate across days Daily or session integrity: calculate daily Failure to find significant treatment effects might be explained by poor component integrity over time, by poor daily integrity, or both What is good integrity? 80% (according to the research) If below 80%, also may need to do direct observation and meet with the teacher more often to share data on integrity and student progress Most common methods arranged hierarchically (least to most accurate, least to most reactive). Teacher self-report, rating scales, interviews are considered indirect assessment. Direct observation considered direct assessment. How to report the integrity: Sum number of components correctly implemented and divide this number by the total number of components = % integrity Recommended two estimates of integrity be calculated Component integrity: calculate across days Daily or session integrity: calculate daily Failure to find significant treatment effects might be explained by poor component integrity over time, by poor daily integrity, or both What is good integrity? 80% (according to the research) If below 80%, also may need to do direct observation and meet with the teacher more often to share data on integrity and student progress

    89. 5 Minute Walk Through Observation of Implementation Integrity (sample 1)

    90. 5 Minute Walk Through Observation of Implementation Integrity (sample 2)

    91. Evaluation/Progress Monitoring

    98. Tier 1: General Education Benchmark Assessment and Progress Monitoring Collecting the progress monitoring data is not enough. Teachers must use the data. We must be sure that EACH teacher knows who the SUPPORT person is. That is, what is the process by which GE teachers share/review their Benchmark data? Who is there support? Can be a grade-level team were each Ss Benchmark data are reviewed, a reading coach, or a school principal. If you collect the data and dont use it, you wont get Ss improving if their program isnt working the first time.Collecting the progress monitoring data is not enough. Teachers must use the data. We must be sure that EACH teacher knows who the SUPPORT person is. That is, what is the process by which GE teachers share/review their Benchmark data? Who is there support? Can be a grade-level team were each Ss Benchmark data are reviewed, a reading coach, or a school principal. If you collect the data and dont use it, you wont get Ss improving if their program isnt working the first time.

    99. Helps Understand Individual Student Problem or More Than 1? How would you interpret these 5 benchmark graphs from the members of the low reading group? This is a group problem, not a kid problem. Only 1 in 5 students benefited. How would you interpret these 5 benchmark graphs from the members of the low reading group? This is a group problem, not a kid problem. Only 1 in 5 students benefited.