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Immunity—non-specific/innate. Overview of immune response First line of defense—barriers Second line of defense Phagocytosis Inflammation Complement Fever Relationship to specific immune response or Third line of defense. Immune Response—Overview. First Line of Defense.

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immunity non specific innate
Immunity—non-specific/innate
  • Overview of immune response
  • First line of defense—barriers
  • Second line of defense
    • Phagocytosis
    • Inflammation
    • Complement
    • Fever
  • Relationship to specific immune response or Third line of defense
first line of defense
First Line of Defense
  • Physical barrier on all surfaces of body exposed to external world
  • What are they?
    • Skin
    • Mucous membranes—nasal, respiratory
    • Lining of mouth
    • Lining of gut
    • Lining of vagina/urethra
    • Surface of eye
how do barrier membranes keep bacteria out
How do barrier membranes keep bacteria out?
  • Chemical barrier—antibacterial secretions
  • Cellular barrier—cells tightly packed and sloughed off (10B skin cells/day=250 g./year)
  • Physical barrier—thick, mucousy and sticky secretions trap bacteria
  • Resident microbes—have commensal or mutualistic bacteria and fungi that are normally present and out-compete potential pathogens
slide6
First line of Defense—physical barrier
  • Second Line of Defense
    • Phagocytosis
    • Inflammation
    • Complement
    • Fever
    • All work tightly with specific immunity
phagocytosis
Phagocytosis
  • Phagocytes move through blood and lymph and into connective tissues (part of inflammation response as cells and fluid move out of capillaries into surround aleolar tissues--diapedesis)
slide9

Langerhans cells in skin

  • Phagocytes in blood
  • Microglial cells in CNS
complement
Complement
  • Group of free proteins in blood that respond to antigen/antibody complex (huh?—coming soon)
  • Cascade of reactions eventually makes MAC’s—membrane attack complex—that bores hole in bacterial membrane
  • Gram-negative bacteria more susceptible
inflammation
Inflammation
  • Response to tissue damage from any source (burn, cut, pathogen, other??)
  • Blood vessels dilate allowing for better delivery of nutrients, O2, antibodies, complement, immune cells
  • Phagocytes (monocytes and neutrophils) migrate out of capillaries--diapedesis
fever
Pluses

Inhibit microbial growth

Enhance immune cell performance

Speed tissue repair

Minuses

Malaise

Body aches

chills

Fever

Trigger not completely understood

Muscular contraction and constriction of skin blood vessels cause core temperature to rise

  • “Breaking” fever or “crisis of fever”:
  • body begins to cool by sweating,
  • “color returns” as blood vessels in skin open
  • Indicates infection is overcome
links from innate 2 nd line to specific adaptive 3 rd line immunity
Links from innate (2nd line) to specific/adaptive (3rd line) Immunity
  • Phagocytosis continues to be common way to kill pathogenic cells in both specific and non-specific response
  • Inflammation works to allow both specific and non-specific immune response to accelerate
  • Fever also allows for better performance in both specific and non-specific function
  • Specific immune response and “antigen presentation” further stimulates non-specific actions like phagocytosis, complement.