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Infectious skin diseases. Defense mechanisms. Physical barrier Chemical and biochemical barrier Biologic barrier Innate immunity Acquired immunity . E. Simko WCVM. Infectious skin diseases - viral. Viral diseases. Poxviruses Macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts. Orthopoxvirus

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Infectious skin diseases

Defense mechanisms

  • Physical barrier
  • Chemical and biochemical barrier
  • Biologic barrier
  • Innate immunity
  • Acquired immunity

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Viral diseases

PoxvirusesMacules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts







E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Viral diseases

Contagious ecthyma (Parapoxvirus) High morbidity and low mortality

Bovine papular stomatitis

Pseudocowpox (parapoxvirus)Zoonosis (milker's nodules)

Bovine herpes mammillitis virus

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Other viral infections:

Canine distemperNasodigital hyperkeratosis (hard pad disease)

Foot-and-mouth disease (picornavirus)

Vesicular stomatitis (rhabdovirus)

Swine vesicular disease (picornavirus)

Vesicular exanthema (calicivirus)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

  • Diagnosis of viral infections:
  • History
  • Gross and histopathology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Electron microscopy
  • Viral isolation

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Bacterial diseases

Superficial folliculitis

Deep folliculitis

  • Furunculosis
  • Adenitis

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Superficial pyodermas

Pathogenesis: bacterial proliferation in epidermis triggers superficial neutrophilic inflammation

  • Superficial pustular dermatitis (impetigo)& folliculitis
  • Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus
  • Dermatophilosis (Bo, Ov, Eq, rare in Ca, Fe)
  • Dermatophilus congolensis
  • Exudative epidermitis of pigs (greasy pig disease)
  • Staphylococcus hyicus

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Deep pyodermas

Deep bacterial infections secondary to follicular hyperkeratosis, immunosuppression, trauma et cet

  • Staphylococcal folliculitis and furunculosis (Ca)
  • Subcutaneous abscesses (P. multocida) (Fe)
  • Granulomatous dermatitis M. lepraemurium (Fe)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Pododermatitides of ruminants

  • Footrot - Bacteroides nodosus +/- F. necrophorum
  • Benign (scald) and virulent form
  • Necrobacillosis - F. necrophorum+/- B. melaninogenicus
  • Ovine and bovine interdigital dermatitis
  • Bovine digital dermatitis (strawberry foot)
  • Associated with spirochetes
  • Viral diseases (BVD, MCF, F&M…)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Systemic bacterial infections

  • Septicemia / endotoxemia
  • S. suis, Salmonella, Erysipelas
  • Clostridial infections
  • (more details in muscle)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Mycotic diseases

Dermatophytosis (ring worm)

  • Microsporum and Trichophyton
  • Zoonosis
  • Fungi invade and damage keratinized tissues initiating
  • inflammation resulting in folliculitis/furunculosis
  • Fungi die in the central areas of inflammation and are
  • viable peripherally forming peripheral red rings.

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Mycotic diseases

Malassezia (M. pachydermatis)



E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Diagnosis of bacterial and mycotic dz

  • Scraping
  • Cultures
  • Gross and histopathology
  • Nota bene !!!
  • Pyoderma is usually secondary disease obscuring primary disorders
  • Therefore, treat it first and than submit skin biopsy

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Ectoparsitic diseases

  • Diseases are due to direct effect of parasites and/or hypersensitivity reaction
  • Diagnosis:
        • Scraping
        • Gross and histopathology

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Ectoparasites


  • Demodex canis live in the lumina of hair follicles
  • Transmission occurs during nursing
  • In juvenile dogs and immunocompromised adults
  • Lesions: localized (face and/or forelegs) or
  • generalized scaling, erythema and alopecia


  • Sarcoptes scabiei - highly contagious
  • Mites burrow through the stratum corneum and
  • cause intense pruritus (hypersensitivity reaction)

E. Simko WCVM


Keratinization disorders

Keratinization disorders

Seborrheic Disease Complex

  • Abnormal cornification or sebaceous glands function
  • Change from nonpathogenic to pathogenic bacteria
  • Dry or greasy form
  • Primary or secondary

E. Simko WCVM


Nutritional disorders

Nutritional disorders

Zinc and Copper Deficiency

  • Abnormal keratinization and pigmentation

Vitamin A

Vitamin E

E. Simko WCVM


Neoplastic skin diseases


  • Skin is a common site of neoplasms in most animals
  • Epithelial tumors
  • Mesenchymal tumors
  • Melanocytic tumors
  • Diagnosis
  • Fine needle aspirate
  • Biopsy

E. Simko WCVM