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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition Chapter 11. Key Concepts. Human land use. Types and uses of US public lands. Forests and forest management. Implications of deforestation. Management of parks.

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sustaining terrestrial biodiversity the ecosystem approach
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

14th Edition

Chapter 11

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Human land use
  • Types and uses of US public lands
  • Forests and forest management
  • Implications of deforestation
  • Management of parks
  • Establishment and management of nature preserves
  • Importance of ecological restoration
factors increasing biodiversity
Factors Increasing Biodiversity
  • Middle stage of succession
  • Moderate environmental disturbance
  • Small changes in environmental conditions
  • Physically diverse habitat
  • Evolution

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 195

factors decreasing biodiversity
Factors Decreasing Biodiversity
  • Extreme environmental conditions
  • Large environmental disturbance
  • Intense environmental stress
  • Severe shortages of resources
  • Nonnative species introduction
  • Geographic isolation

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 195

importance of biodiversity
Importance of Biodiversity
  • Intrinsic value
  • Instrumental value
  • Existence value
  • Aesthetic value
  • Bequest value
conservation biology
Conservation Biology
  • Multidisciplinary science
  • Emergency response
  • Identify “hot spots”
  • Rapid Assessment Teams
  • Based on Leopold’s ethics
types of us public lands
Types of US Public Lands
  • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands
  • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges
  • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System
us public lands
US Public Lands

Fig. 11-6 p. 198

managing us public land
Managing US Public Land
  • Biodiversity and ecological function
  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use
  • Public should get fair compensation
  • Users held responsible for actions
types of forests
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth (frontier) forests
  • Second-growth forests
  • Tree farms/plantation
managing and sustaining forests
Managing and Sustaining Forests

Ecological Importance of Forests

Refer to Fig. 11-7 p. 200

  • Food webs and energy flow
  • Protect soils from erosion
  • Local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification
managing and sustaining forests22
Managing and Sustaining Forests

Economic Importance of Forests

Refer to Fig. 11-7 p. 200

  • Fuelwood
  • Lumber
  • Paper
  • Livestock grazing
  • Mineral extraction and recreation
forest management
Forest Management
  • Rotation cycle
  • Even-aged management
  • Uneven-aged management
  • Improved diversity
  • Sustainable production
  • Multiple-use
roads lead to forest degradation
Roads Lead to Forest Degradation
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 11-9 p. 201

harvesting trees
Harvesting Trees
  • Selective cutting
  • High-grading
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-tree cutting
  • Clear-cutting
  • Strip cutting

Fig. 11-10e p. 202

sustainable forestry
Sustainable Forestry
  • Longer rotations
  • Selective or strip cutting
  • Minimize fragmentation
  • Improved road building techniques
  • Certify sustainable grown

(See Solutions, Fig. 11-13 p. 205)

insect and pathogen threats to u s forests
Insect and Pathogen Threats to U.S. Forests
  • Sudden oak death
  • White pine blister rust
  • Pine shoot beetle
  • Beech bark disease
  • Hemlock woolly adelgid

See Fig. 11-14 p. 207

slide34
Fire
  • Surface fires
  • Crown fires

Fig. 11-15 p. 208

logging in u s national forests
Logging in U.S. National Forests
  • Provides local jobs
  • Provides only 3% of timber
  • Increases environmental

damage

  • Hinders recreation income

Fig. 11-16 p. 210

tropical deforestation consequences
Tropical Deforestation: Consequences
  • Rapid and increasing
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Loss of resources (e.g., medicines)
  • Contributes to global warming
reducing tropical deforestation
Reducing Tropical Deforestation
  • Encourage protection of large tracts
  • Sustainable tropical agriculture
  • Debt-for-nature swaps
  • Reduce illegal cutting
  • Reducing poverty and population growth

Refer to Fig. 11-19 p. 213

managing and sustaining national parks
Managing and Sustaining National Parks
  • Inadequate protection
  • Often too small to sustain biodiversity
  • Invasions by nonnative species
  • Too many human visitors
  • Traffic jams and air pollution
  • Better pay for park staff

Also refer to Fig. 11-29 p. 215

establishing designing and managing nature reserves
Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves
  • Include moderate to large tracts of land
  • Involve government, private sector and citizens
  • Biosphere reserves
  • Adaptive ecosystem management
  • Protect most important areas (“hot spots”)
  • Wilderness areas
ecological restoration
Ecological Restoration
  • Restoration
  • Rehabilitation
  • Remediation

See Individuals Matter p. 214

  • Replacement
  • Creating artificial ecosystems
ecological restoration basic principles
Ecological Restoration: Basic Principles
  • Mimic nature
  • Recreate lost niches
  • Rely on pioneer species
  • Control nonnative species
  • Reconnect small patches