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Sustaining Wild Species. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 22. Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College. Human Impacts on Biodiversity. Fig. 22-2 p. 561. Increasing Biodiversity. Physically diverse habitat.

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Sustaining wild species l.jpg
Sustaining Wild Species

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 22

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

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Increasing Biodiversity

  • Physically diverse habitat

  • Moderate environmental disturbance

  • Small variations in conditions

  • Middle stages of ecological succession

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Decreasing Biodiversity

  • Environmental stress

  • Large environmental disturbance

  • Extreme environmental conditions

  • Severe limiting factors

  • Introduction of alien species

  • Geographic isolation

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US Diversity

Fig. 22-3 p. 562

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Strategies for Protecting Biodiversity

  • Species approach

  • Ecosystem approach

Fig. 22-5 p. 563

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Species Extinction

  • Local extinction

  • Ecological extinction

  • Biological extinction

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Endangered and Threatened Species

  • Endangered species

  • Threatened (vulnerable) species

  • Rare species

Fig. 22-7 p. 564

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

© 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

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Extinction Risks

  • Factors: population size, habitat, and


  • Population viability analysis

  • Minimum viable population

  • Minimum dynamic area

  • Characteristics of extinction-prone species (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566)

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Extinction Rates

  • Background (natural) rate of extinction

  • Massextinction

  • Adaptiveradiations

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Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?

  • Instrumental value

  • Intrinsic value

See Spotlight p. 571

Fig. 22-10p. 569

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Causes of Depletion of Wild Species

  • Human population growth

  • Failure to value the environment or ecological services

  • Increasing per capita resource use

  • Increasing use of Earth’s primary productivity

  • Poverty

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Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species

  • Habitat degradation

  • Introduction of non-native species

Fig. 22-12

p. 572

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Threats from Nonnative Species


Roles of non-

native species


(p. 576)

See Connections

p. 577 and

Case Study p. 579

Fig. 22-19 p. 579

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Other Extinction Threats

Hunting and Poaching

Predators and Pest Control

Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants

Climate Change and Pollution

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Protecting Wild Species: The Research and Legal Approaches

  • Bioinformatics

  • International Treaties: CITES

  • National Laws: Lacey Act Endangered Species Act

  • Habitat conservation plans

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Protecting Wild Species: The Sanctuary Approach

  • Wildlife refuges and protected areas

  • Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms

  • Zoos and Aquariums

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Wildlife Management

  • Laws regulating hunting and fishing

  • Harvest quotas

  • Population management plants

  • Improving habitat

  • Treaties and laws for migrating species

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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 23

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

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Land Use in the World

Fig. 23-2

p. 595

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Land Use in the United States

Rangeland and pasture 29%

Fig. 23-3 p. 595

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Types of US Public Lands

  • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands

  • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges

  • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System

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US Public Lands

Fig. 23-4

p. 596

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Managing US Public Land

  • Biodiversity and ecological function

  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use

  • Public should get fair compensation

  • Users held responsible for actions

  • Takings and property rights

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Managing and Sustaining Forests

Ecological Importance of Forests

  • Food webs and energy flow

  • Water regulation

  • Local and regional climate

  • Numerous habitats and niches

  • Air purification

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Managing and Sustaining Forests

Economic Importance of Forests

  • Fuelwood (50% of global forest use)

  • Industrial timber and lumber

  • Pulp and paper

  • Medicines

  • Mineral extraction and recreation

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Forest Structure

Fig. 23-9 p. 601

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Types of Forests

  • Old-growth (frontier) forests

  • Second-growth forests

  • Tree farms/plantation

Fig. 23-18 p. 609

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Forest Management

  • Rotation cycle

  • Even-aged management

  • Industrial forestry

  • Uneven-aged management

  • Improved diversity

  • Sustainable production

  • Multiple-use

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Management Strategies

Fig. 23-11 p. 601

Fig. 23-12 p. 602

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Logging Roads

  • Increased erosion and runoff

  • Habitat fragmentation

  • Pathways for exotic species

  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 23-13 p. 602

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Harvesting Trees

  • Selective cutting

  • High-grading

  • Shelterwood cutting

  • Seed-tree cutting

  • Clearcutting

  • Strip cutting

Fig. 23-14 p. 603

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Sustainable Forestry

  • Longer rotations

  • Selective or strip cutting

  • Minimize fragmentation

  • Improved road building techniques

  • Certified sustainable grown(See Solutions p. 598)

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Fungal Diseases

  • Chestnut blight

  • Dutch elm disease

Insect Pests

  • Bark beetles

  • Gypsy moth

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Fig. 23-17 p. 607

  • Surface fires

  • Crown fires

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Forest Resources and Management in the United States

  • Habitat for threatened and endangered species

  • Water purification services

  • Recreation

  • 3% of timber harvest

  • Sustainable yield and multiple use

  • Substitutes for tree products

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Tropical Deforestation

  • Rapid and increasing

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Cultural extinction

  • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching

  • Clearing for cash crop plantations

  • Commercial logging

  • Fuelwood

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Reducing Tropical Deforestation

  • Identification of critical ecosystems

  • Reducing poverty and population growth

  • Sustainable tropical agriculture

  • Encourage protection of large tracts

  • Debt-for-nature swaps

  • Less destructive harvesting methods

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The Fuelwood Crisis

  • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants

  • Burning wood more efficiently

  • Switching to other fuels

Fig. 23-25 p. 618

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Managing and Sustaining National Parks

  • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity

  • Invasion by exotic species

  • Popularity a major problem

  • Traffic jams and air pollution

  • Visitor impact (noise)

  • Natural regulation

  • Better pay for park staff

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Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves

  • Include some moderate disturbance

  • Sustain natural ecological processes

  • Protect most important areas

  • Buffer zones

  • Gap analysis

See Solutions p. 625

  • Wilderness areas

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Ecological Restoration

  • Ecological restoration

  • Restoration ecology

  • Rehabilitation

See Individuals Matter p. 630

  • Replacement

  • Creating artificial ecosystems

  • Natural restoration

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Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 24

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

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The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Coral reefs

  • Estuaries

  • Deep ocean floor

  • Food items

Fig. 24-2

p. 636

  • Many chemicals

  • Medicines and drugs

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Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity

  • Species loss and endangerment

  • Marine habitat loss and degradation

  • Freshwater habitat loss and degradation

  • Overfishing

  • Nonnative species

  • Pollution and global warming

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Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity

  • Protect endangered and threatened species

  • Establish protected areas

  • Integrated coastal management

  • Regulating and preventing ocean pollution

  • Sustainable management of marine fisheries

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Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries

  • Fishery regulations

  • Economic approaches

  • Bycatch reduction

  • Protected areas

See Spotlight p. 650

  • Nonnative species

  • Consumer information

  • Aquaculture

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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands

Fig. 24-12 p. 653

  • Regulations

  • Mitigation banking

  • Land use planning

  • Wetlands restoration

  • Control of invasive species

See Individuals Matter p. 652

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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes

Fig. 24-13 p. 655

  • Pollution

  • Invasive species

  • Water levels

  • Cultural eutrophication

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Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers

Fig. 24-14 p. 656

  • Pollution

  • Disruption of water flow

  • Loss of biodiversity

  • Invasive species