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Sustaining Wild Species. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 22. Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College. Human Impacts on Biodiversity. Fig. 22-2 p. 561. Increasing Biodiversity. Physically diverse habitat.

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sustaining wild species
Sustaining Wild Species

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 22

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

increasing biodiversity
Increasing Biodiversity
  • Physically diverse habitat
  • Moderate environmental disturbance
  • Small variations in conditions
  • Middle stages of ecological succession
decreasing biodiversity
Decreasing Biodiversity
  • Environmental stress
  • Large environmental disturbance
  • Extreme environmental conditions
  • Severe limiting factors
  • Introduction of alien species
  • Geographic isolation
us diversity
US Diversity

Fig. 22-3 p. 562

strategies for protecting biodiversity
Strategies for Protecting Biodiversity
  • Species approach
  • Ecosystem approach

Fig. 22-5 p. 563

species extinction
Species Extinction
  • Local extinction
  • Ecological extinction
  • Biological extinction
endangered and threatened species
Endangered and Threatened Species
  • Endangered species
  • Threatened (vulnerable) species
  • Rare species

Fig. 22-7 p. 564

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

© 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

extinction risks
Extinction Risks
  • Factors: population size, habitat, and


  • Population viability analysis
  • Minimum viable population
  • Minimum dynamic area
  • Characteristics of extinction-prone species (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566)
extinction rates
Extinction Rates
  • Background (natural) rate of extinction
  • Massextinction
  • Adaptiveradiations
why should we care about biodiversity
Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?
  • Instrumental value
  • Intrinsic value

See Spotlight p. 571

Fig. 22-10p. 569

causes of depletion of wild species
Causes of Depletion of Wild Species
  • Human population growth
  • Failure to value the environment or ecological services
  • Increasing per capita resource use
  • Increasing use of Earth’s primary productivity
  • Poverty
causes of premature extinction of wild species
Causes of Premature Extinction of Wild Species
  • Habitat degradation
  • Introduction of non-native species

Fig. 22-12

p. 572

threats from nonnative species
Threats from Nonnative Species


Roles of non-

native species


(p. 576)

See Connections

p. 577 and

Case Study p. 579

Fig. 22-19 p. 579

other extinction threats
Other Extinction Threats

Hunting and Poaching

Predators and Pest Control

Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants

Climate Change and Pollution

protecting wild species the research and legal approaches
Protecting Wild Species: The Research and Legal Approaches
  • Bioinformatics
  • International Treaties: CITES
  • National Laws: Lacey Act Endangered Species Act
  • Habitat conservation plans
protecting wild species the sanctuary approach
Protecting Wild Species: The Sanctuary Approach
  • Wildlife refuges and protected areas
  • Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms
  • Zoos and Aquariums
wildlife management
Wildlife Management
  • Laws regulating hunting and fishing
  • Harvest quotas
  • Population management plants
  • Improving habitat
  • Treaties and laws for migrating species
sustaining terrestrial biodiversity the ecosystem approach
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 23

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

land use in the world
Land Use in the World

Fig. 23-2

p. 595

land use in the united states
Land Use in the United States

Rangeland and pasture 29%

Fig. 23-3 p. 595

types of us public lands
Types of US Public Lands
  • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands
  • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges
  • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System
us public lands
US Public Lands

Fig. 23-4

p. 596

managing us public land
Managing US Public Land
  • Biodiversity and ecological function
  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use
  • Public should get fair compensation
  • Users held responsible for actions
  • Takings and property rights
managing and sustaining forests
Managing and Sustaining Forests

Ecological Importance of Forests

  • Food webs and energy flow
  • Water regulation
  • Local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification
managing and sustaining forests26
Managing and Sustaining Forests

Economic Importance of Forests

  • Fuelwood (50% of global forest use)
  • Industrial timber and lumber
  • Pulp and paper
  • Medicines
  • Mineral extraction and recreation
forest structure
Forest Structure

Fig. 23-9 p. 601

types of forests
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth (frontier) forests
  • Second-growth forests
  • Tree farms/plantation

Fig. 23-18 p. 609

forest management
Forest Management
  • Rotation cycle
  • Even-aged management
  • Industrial forestry
  • Uneven-aged management
  • Improved diversity
  • Sustainable production
  • Multiple-use
management strategies
Management Strategies

Fig. 23-11 p. 601

Fig. 23-12 p. 602

logging roads
Logging Roads
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 23-13 p. 602

harvesting trees
Harvesting Trees
  • Selective cutting
  • High-grading
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-tree cutting
  • Clearcutting
  • Strip cutting

Fig. 23-14 p. 603

sustainable forestry
Sustainable Forestry
  • Longer rotations
  • Selective or strip cutting
  • Minimize fragmentation
  • Improved road building techniques
  • Certified sustainable grown(See Solutions p. 598)

Fungal Diseases

  • Chestnut blight
  • Dutch elm disease

Insect Pests

  • Bark beetles
  • Gypsy moth

Fig. 23-17 p. 607

  • Surface fires
  • Crown fires
forest resources and management in the united states
Forest Resources and Management in the United States
  • Habitat for threatened and endangered species
  • Water purification services
  • Recreation
  • 3% of timber harvest
  • Sustainable yield and multiple use
  • Substitutes for tree products
tropical deforestation
Tropical Deforestation
  • Rapid and increasing
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Cultural extinction
  • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching
  • Clearing for cash crop plantations
  • Commercial logging
  • Fuelwood
reducing tropical deforestation
Reducing Tropical Deforestation
  • Identification of critical ecosystems
  • Reducing poverty and population growth
  • Sustainable tropical agriculture
  • Encourage protection of large tracts
  • Debt-for-nature swaps
  • Less destructive harvesting methods
the fuelwood crisis
The Fuelwood Crisis
  • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants
  • Burning wood more efficiently
  • Switching to other fuels

Fig. 23-25 p. 618

managing and sustaining national parks
Managing and Sustaining National Parks
  • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity
  • Invasion by exotic species
  • Popularity a major problem
  • Traffic jams and air pollution
  • Visitor impact (noise)
  • Natural regulation
  • Better pay for park staff
establishing designing and managing nature reserves
Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves
  • Include some moderate disturbance
  • Sustain natural ecological processes
  • Protect most important areas
  • Buffer zones
  • Gap analysis

See Solutions p. 625

  • Wilderness areas
ecological restoration
Ecological Restoration
  • Ecological restoration
  • Restoration ecology
  • Rehabilitation

See Individuals Matter p. 630

  • Replacement
  • Creating artificial ecosystems
  • Natural restoration
sustaining aquatic biodiversity
Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 24

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

the importance of aquatic biodiversity
The Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Coral reefs
  • Estuaries
  • Deep ocean floor
  • Food items

Fig. 24-2

p. 636

  • Many chemicals
  • Medicines and drugs
human impacts on aquatic biodiversity
Human Impacts on Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Species loss and endangerment
  • Marine habitat loss and degradation
  • Freshwater habitat loss and degradation
  • Overfishing
  • Nonnative species
  • Pollution and global warming
protecting and sustaining marine biodiversity
Protecting and Sustaining Marine Biodiversity
  • Protect endangered and threatened species
  • Establish protected areas
  • Integrated coastal management
  • Regulating and preventing ocean pollution
  • Sustainable management of marine fisheries
managing and sustaining the world s marine fisheries
Managing and Sustaining the World’s Marine Fisheries
  • Fishery regulations
  • Economic approaches
  • Bycatch reduction
  • Protected areas

See Spotlight p. 650

  • Nonnative species
  • Consumer information
  • Aquaculture
protecting sustaining and restoring wetlands
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Wetlands

Fig. 24-12 p. 653

  • Regulations
  • Mitigation banking
  • Land use planning
  • Wetlands restoration
  • Control of invasive species

See Individuals Matter p. 652

protecting sustaining and restoring lakes
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Lakes

Fig. 24-13 p. 655

  • Pollution
  • Invasive species
  • Water levels
  • Cultural eutrophication
protecting sustaining and restoring rivers
Protecting, Sustaining, and Restoring Rivers

Fig. 24-14 p. 656

  • Pollution
  • Disruption of water flow
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Invasive species