Water Everywhere 71% of the total surface of the earth is covered by ocean, rivers, lakes, under table and polar ice caps. Oceans cover the majority of the earth. There are 5 major oceans; the Atlantic, pacific, Indian, arctic and Antarctica ocean. The largest being the Pacific ocean and the smallest the Indian ocean.
Water everywhere The earth is 71% water and 29% land. Of the 71% water- 97% of that is salt water and 3% is fresh water. Of that 3% fresh water-the majority is frozen in polar ice caps. The rest are in rivers, lakes and streams.
Lakes Lakes are small bodies of water. Lakes are fed by springs, rivers, rain and runoff( water cycle). Lakes hold all types of vegetation and animals. Lakes are fresh water sources.
Rivers Rivers are flowing bodies of water. They have different depths and widths. Rivers are created from many different things. Glaciers, Springs, and lakes. Rivers usually always flow north to south or higher elevation to lower elevation. Steams and creeks can become rivers over time by a process called Erosion. Rives are fresh water sources
Springs and Aquifers Springs are sources of fresh water. Spring water comes from out of the ground from the earths water table and aquifers. Springs feed rives and help them keep fresh flowing water. Aquifers are pockets of fresh water that is trapped under ground.
How does water move? The water cycle helps water move around the world. Water from the ocean can end up in the lakes and rivers and the water from lakes and rivers can end up in the ocean from day to day. So….. If fresh water evaporates and then precipitates in the ocean then how does the fresh water become salt water? How does salt water become fresh water? When salt water from the ocean evaporates, then the salt does not evaporate with it. When fresh water evaporates and moves to the ocean water then it mixes to become salt water.
Back to the water cycle… We know that water never dissapears but it does move around the earth by a process called the water cycle. Through evaporation, precipitation, condensation and runoff water moves around the earth.
Back to Fronts and Air Masses Remember cool or cold air _______ and warm or hot air _________. When the two air masses meet, cool air always pushes beneath warm air. The warm air then rises and condenses to form clouds and precipitation.
Ocean Currents Another way water is moved around the world is by Ocean Currents. Ocean currents are when water follows a regular pattern. Two types of ocean currents are Surface and deep currents. Both move water in patterns. Surface currents move water that’s on top of the ocean and deep currents move water below the surface of the ocean. Surface currents affect the temperature of the air around it. If the surface currents are warm then the air above it will be warm.
Waves and Tides Waves have parts, these parts are the wavelength, wave height, crest and trough.
Waves and tides Many things can cause waves but the main reason for waves is the wind. Wind causes waves more than any other thing. As the wind blows across the water, the energy is transferred and cause the water to rise. Other things that cause waves are objects falling in the water, earthquakes and gravitational pull. Tides are known as how the water comes in to the shore. How far it reaches in or how far is pulls back. The main reason for tide change is gravitational pull from the moon. During the day the moon is not present so the tide is free to move as far in as it wants but at night the moons gravitational pull causes the water to pull back away from the shore.
Surface of the Bottom of the ocean floor. The ocean consist of many things. Animals, plants, salt. The ocean floor is not flat, it is very rough and hilly. The ocean floor has many parts to it. These parts are the continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain, mid-ocean ridges, rift valley, seamounts , ocean trenches.