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Transfer Appropriate Processing. Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977. Visual Images. “image” – mental representation that is very similar in nature to the actual object or idea that is being represented E.g., forming an image of the front door of your home (visual image)

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Transfer Appropriate Processing


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transfer appropriate processing
Transfer Appropriate Processing
  • Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977
visual images
Visual Images
  • “image” – mental representation that is very similar in nature to the actual object or idea that is being represented
  • E.g., forming an image of the front door of your home (visual image)
  • E.g., imagine the sound of nails scraping on the chalkboard (auditory image)
use of visual images
Use of visual images
  • People naturally use visual images to perform mental tasks
  • Example on p. 176 (fig. 7.1) shows a task in which people naturally use a visual image to complete the task
visual images and memory
Visual Images and Memory
  • Principles of Remembering (Higbee, 1988)
    • Tricks or rules for having items “stick” in LTM
    • Attention
    • Association
    • Meaningfulness
    • Organization
    • Visualization
attention
Attention
  • Must first pay attention to something to remember it (or focus)
    • Things we don’t remember well because we never pay attention
      • Red light on traffic signal – top or bottom?
      • Lincoln’s image on a penny – left or right?
      • Toilet flush – circle clockwise or counterclockwise?
association
Association
  • Find connections between target material (what you’re trying to learn) and what is already in memory
    • E.g., measure association value of a stimulus
    • CARICATURE (list items from memory related)
      • Cartoon
      • Exaggeration
      • Street vendors
      • humorists
using association
Using association
  • Find information in memory that is related to (i.e., associated with) the target material
  • Help improve memory
meaningfulness
meaningfulness
  • Seek meaning in target material
  • Goal is memorize a list of letters
  • S W G F B I P A W
  • Can become
  • S W G FBI PAW
  • Reduced to 5 items instead of nine
  • Aids memory
organization
organization
  • Arranging or rearranging target material to find patterns
  • E.g., arranging your flashcards into piles based on similar concepts
  •  aid your memory
  • Look for tables of contents, lists, hierarchy, groups, etc.
visualization
visualization
  • Form a visual image
    • CHAIR  forming a visual image will improve your memory for that word
    • MATH 
    • EMOTION 
    • ABSTRACT  harder to visualize
    • RANDOM  harder to visualize
concrete vs abstract words
Concrete vs. abstract words
  • Concrete words are easier to form images of
  • Abstract words are harder
  • The “concrete-abstract dimension” (Paivio, 1969)
  • Imageability  your ability to form an image of a particular word or object
  • Concrete words remembered better than abstract words
interactive image
Interactive image
  • Compound image that is comprised of two or more images interacting with each other
  • Interactive images lead to superior memory
    • BUN
    • SHIRT
    • E.g., hamburger bun with ketchup dripping off onto a shirt; animated hot dog wearing a shirt
mnemonic memory trick
Mnemonic (memory trick)
  • System that combines as many of the principles for memorizing some target material
  • Prefix “mne” = memory