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Appropriate Pedagogy:. Language, Culture, and Curriculum. What is “Appropriate Pedagogy?”. What are appropriate goals? What are appropriate texts? What are appropriate contexts? What are appropriate methodologies? What are appropriate assessments?. Appropriate Goals-1.

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appropriate pedagogy

Appropriate Pedagogy:

Language, Culture, and Curriculum

what is appropriate pedagogy
What is “Appropriate Pedagogy?”
  • What are appropriate goals?
  • What are appropriate texts?
  • What are appropriate contexts?
  • What are appropriate methodologies?
  • What are appropriate assessments?
appropriate goals 1
Appropriate Goals-1
  • Is it “Linguistic Competence”?
    • Focus on Form
      • How (grammar) and what (vocabulary) to say
appropriate goals 2
Appropriate Goals-2
  • Is it “Communicative Competence”?
      • Focus on meaning (making)
        • Meaning as bound to a cultural context
        • Meaning as negotiated through discourse
        • Meaning as negotiated through communicative strategies
communicative competence
Communicative Competence
  • …[some] occasions call for being appropriately ungrammatical … child acquires knowledge of sentences, not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate, … [child] acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner … [s/he] becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of speech acts, to take part in speech events, an to evaluate their accomplishments by others.
communicative competence1
Communicative Competence
  • Knowledge of how, when, and why to say what to whom. [add understanding]
    • Focus on language functions linguistic items perform.
      • Ex: achaa, caleN?
        • Compare: “appropriately ungrammatical”

papaji, aap caay pi-yeNge?

daddy, aap bhii pi-yoge?

why communicative competence
Why Communicative Competence
  • Kashmiri: “Would you like to have a cup of tea?”
    • caay cakh-aa
    • caay cakh-ay
    • caay cakh-ba
    • caay cakh-bi
    • caay cakh-sa
    • caay cayiv-mahraa
    • caay cayiv-haz
components of cc
Components of “CC”
  • Grammatical competence: knowledge of the vocabulary, word structure, and sentence structure of a language;
  • Sociolinguistic competence: the ability to use language in a contextually appropriate way, taking into account the roles of the participants, the setting, and the purpose of the interaction;
components of cc1
Components of “CC”
  • Discourse competence: the ability to connect utterances to an overall theme or topic (discourse coherence), and the ability to infer the meaning of larger units (pragmatics);
  • Strategic competence: ability to compensate for imperfect knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic and discourse rules.
focus of fl teaching
Focus of FL teaching
  • Theoretical focus
    • How do learners learn?
    • What do they learn?
  • Methodological focus
    • What are learners’ “needs”?
      • First step: Needs analysis
communicative language teaching
Communicative Language Teaching
  • Meaningful, goal oriented use of target language—focus on the “active” learner;
  • Language input is vital, grammar explanations may help;
  • Some errors are creations of productive engagement with input;
  • Teacher’s role: selection of material and tasks, facilitator.
clt methodology
CLT: Methodology
  • Mainly TL use in class
  • Optimal use of L1; code-switching
  • Authentic texts
  • Focus on “functions” (in addition to grammar and vocabulary)
  • Group and paired activity
    • Meaningful and realistic interactions
competing methodologies
Competing Methodologies
  • Input processing: Input => Intake
    • PPP model:
      • Presentation-practice-production
    • OHE model:
      • Observe-hypothesize-experiment
appropriate texts
  • Authentic, but what are they?
    • *Making travel arrangements, going to bars, eating out, booking into hotels, buying gas
    • Focus on the culture(s) of the TL
      • An essay on cricket?
    • Whose culture?
diglossic variation
Diglossic Variation
  • Bengali: Calit bhasha vs. Sadhu bhasha
  • Tamil: Colloquial vs. Literary
  • Also Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu
  • What about Hindi?
hindi language variation
Hindi Language Variation
  • Eastern vs. Western
  • Hindi vs. Urdu vs. Hindustani
  • Polyglossic variation
    • paati, ciThii, <khat>, patr, <letter>
hindi use and identity
Hindi: Use and Identity
  • maine janaa hai <> mujhko janaa hai
  • aap caay piyeNgee <> aap caay piyoge
  • kyaa ek gilaas shiital jal uplabdh hogaa
appropriate contexts
  • Learning SALs as:
    • Foreign Languages
    • Less Commonly Taught Languages
    • Heritage Languages
sal as foreign language
SAL as Foreign Language
  • Affective Variables: Needs “Needs Analysis”
  • Motivation?
    • Integrative and/or Instrumental
  • Attitude?
    • Positive or negative
sal as heritage language
SAL as Heritage Language
  • Heritage and cognate-heritage
  • Motivation?
    • Ethno-linguistic identity
    • Maintenance of cultural practices
    • Pop culture
hl and fl the vital difference
HL and FL: the vital difference
  • Input processing
    • Strategies and mechanisms that promote form-meaning connections during comprehension
  • Cross-language (and skills) transfer effects
    • Sociolinguistic competence
    • Discourse competence
    • Linguistic competence
less commonly taught languages
Less Commonly Taught Languages
  • Motivation?
    • Cultural awareness
    • Diversity
socio political context of lctls
Socio-political context of LCTLs
  • Lack of resources
  • Lack of classroom research on LCTLs
  • Lack of institutional support
  • Lack of formal training in language pedagogy
  • Abundance of heritage students
  • Variable class size and offerings
  • Lack of professional development and networking
contexts of texts
Contexts of texts
  • Are they teen-appropriate?
  • Are they HL-appropriate?
skills in contexts
Foreign language




Heritage language




Skills in contexts
l2 literacy
L2 Literacy
  • Issues
    • Transfer of skills: Supports or interferes
    • Language Threshold Hypothesis
      • Onset of L2 literacy vs. L2 learning
        • Limited language knowledge of L2 reader/writer
          • For a LCTL, the problem is worse
    • Role of strategies: mental translation, cognates
    • Scripts: The embarrassment of choices
      • Script choice and identity politics
l2 reading
L2 Reading
  • Abilities and skills
    • Rapid, interactive, strategic, linguistic, and purposeful
  • Purposes:
    • To find information: scan, skim
    • To learn: basic comprehension of main ideas
    • To critique/evaluate: reflections, connections and integration with prior knowledge
  • What works: Texts must be grounded in learner-contexts
l2 writing
L2 Writing
  • Writing is
    • Text
    • Composing (process)
    • Social construction (context)
  • What about L2 writing?
l2 writing contd
L2 Writing contd.
  • What is good L2 writing?
    • Cultures affects texts
      • Different cultures produce culturally influenced and rhetorically distinguishable types of text.
    • Some useful pointers
      • Focus on the process of writing
      • Group writing tasks, peer correction
      • Drafting and re-drafting
      • Teacher as advisor and editor
l2 listening comprehension
L2 Listening Comprehension
  • How does comprehension work?
    • Intelligibility
    • Comprehensibility
    • Interpretability
l2 speaking
L2 speaking
  • Talk across cultures
  • In U.S., but not in South Asia, we
    • Talk around
    • Talk up
    • Talk down
    • Talk it out
    • Talk it through/over
    • Have talk radio and tv stations
    • Have talk show hosts
    • Take turns talking
  • Language learning must proceed within the socio-cultural contexts of its use
  • Learning language, learning culture
  • Goal: Communicative language teaching, tailored to appropriate goals and needs of learners and learning.