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The Kashmir Conflict. Emily, Claire, Krum, Maud. History-1947 . August 1947- India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain September- Muslims are killed in Jammu and thousands flee October- Kashmir chooses to merge with India, Pakistan becomes enraged

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the kashmir conflict

The Kashmir Conflict

Emily, Claire, Krum, Maud

history 1947
  • August 1947- India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain
  • September- Muslims are killed in Jammu and thousands flee
  • October- Kashmir chooses to merge with India, Pakistan becomes enraged
    • Pakistan attacks Kashmir- overrules majority of state
    • India sends in troops to Kashmir but Pakistan has captured a large area of the state,

but India keeping a larger area

1948 1952
  • 1948- India takes the issue to the United Nations Security Council
  • January 1948 - India and Pakistan finally agree to withdraw all troops behind a mutually agreed ceasefire line(Line of Control)
  • October 1949- Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the constitution, giving special status and internal autonomy for Kashmir.
  • 1951- First post-independence elections take place in Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the National Conference, Kashmir’s largest party, wins.
  • 1952- Sheikh Abdullah changes stance (endorsing accession to India) to self-determination for Kashmiris
1965 1984
  • 1965- India and Pakistan go to war after Pakistan launches Operation Gibraltar in August, sending armed infiltrators across the ceasefire line.
  • 1966- Pakistan and India agree to revert to pre-1965 positions.
  • 1972-India and Pakistan sign the Simla Agreement, which declares that the issue will be settled in the future and both sides shall respect the ceasefire line
  • 1982- Sheikh Abdullah dies. His son, Farooq Abdullah, takes over the National Conference.
1987 1999
  • 1987- Farooq Abdullah wins election
  • 1988- Anti-India protests begin by Pakistan citizens
  • 1989-1990- Armed movement against India begins-Pakistan accuses India of arming their fighters
    • 100 killed when India fires at unarmed protesters
  • 1996-1998- India and Pakistan engage in

low level dialogue discussing peace


  • 1999- Insurgents infiltrate vacant

mountain peaks

  • 2000-2010- border tensions, resuming

ties, civil disobedience, unrest

event 1 split of kashmir
Event 1: Split of Kashmir
  • Pashtans and Poonch rebels invade Kashmir
  • Maharaja of Kashmir turns to India for help
  • signs instrument of accession acceding 75% of the region to India
  • 1947 Pakistan declares accession as illegal and invades
  • 1949 UN intervention results in ceasefire
  • Leaves India in control of most of Kashmir while Pakistan gains Azad Kashmir
event 2 plebiscite dillema 1949 1957
Event 2:Plebiscite Dillema(1949-1957)
  • United Nations Commissions for India and Pakistan resolution states that the accession of Jammu And Kashmir will be declared through a plebiscite.
  • Both countries agree, and withdraw their troops
  • Fail to arrive at a truce
  • 1956 – President of India declares the state of Jammu and Kashmir a part of India
event 3 rise of kashmiri nationalism 1963 1987
Event 3: Rise of Kashmiri Nationalism (1963- 1987)
  • Religious conflict
  • Holy Relic is missing from a Shrine in Kashmir
  • Pakistan invade Kashmir again
  • War results in another ceasefire
  • Pakistan funds Kashmiri rebels (Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Font)
  • Countless failed efforts from India and Pakistan to reach a truce.
  • By 1987 India gains even more of Kashmir
event 4 kargil war 1999
Event 4:Kargil War (1999)
  • Kashmir goes through tons of different leaders
  • Very unstable
  • Pakistani soldiers invade onto Indian territory -> start of Kargil war
  • Seen as very dangerous because of Nuclear weapons
  • None were used
  • Results in 1000 soldiers and hundreds of civilians dead
influential people
Influential People
  • Manmohan Singh- Prime Minister of India
  • Pervez Musharraf- Former president of Pakistan, ex-chief of Pakistan military
influential people1
Influential People
  • Yasin Malik- leader of

one faction of the Jammu

Kashmir Liberation Front

  • Sheikh Abdullah- Leader of the National Conference (Kashmir’s largest political party)