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The Kashmir Conflict

The Kashmir Conflict

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The Kashmir Conflict

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  1. The Kashmir Conflict Emily, Claire, Krum, Maud

  2. History-1947 • August 1947- India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain • September- Muslims are killed in Jammu and thousands flee • October- Kashmir chooses to merge with India, Pakistan becomes enraged • Pakistan attacks Kashmir- overrules majority of state • India sends in troops to Kashmir but Pakistan has captured a large area of the state, but India keeping a larger area

  3. 1948-1952 • 1948- India takes the issue to the United Nations Security Council • January 1948 - India and Pakistan finally agree to withdraw all troops behind a mutually agreed ceasefire line(Line of Control) • October 1949- Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the constitution, giving special status and internal autonomy for Kashmir. • 1951- First post-independence elections take place in Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the National Conference, Kashmir’s largest party, wins. • 1952- Sheikh Abdullah changes stance (endorsing accession to India) to self-determination for Kashmiris

  4. 1965-1984 • 1965- India and Pakistan go to war after Pakistan launches Operation Gibraltar in August, sending armed infiltrators across the ceasefire line. • 1966- Pakistan and India agree to revert to pre-1965 positions. • 1972-India and Pakistan sign the Simla Agreement, which declares that the issue will be settled in the future and both sides shall respect the ceasefire line • 1982- Sheikh Abdullah dies. His son, Farooq Abdullah, takes over the National Conference.

  5. 1987-1999 • 1987- Farooq Abdullah wins election • 1988- Anti-India protests begin by Pakistan citizens • 1989-1990- Armed movement against India begins-Pakistan accuses India of arming their fighters • 100 killed when India fires at unarmed protesters • 1996-1998- India and Pakistan engage in low level dialogue discussing peace agreements • 1999- Insurgents infiltrate vacant mountain peaks • 2000-2010- border tensions, resuming ties, civil disobedience, unrest

  6. Event 1: Split of Kashmir • Pashtans and Poonch rebels invade Kashmir • Maharaja of Kashmir turns to India for help • signs instrument of accession acceding 75% of the region to India • 1947 Pakistan declares accession as illegal and invades • 1949 UN intervention results in ceasefire • Leaves India in control of most of Kashmir while Pakistan gains Azad Kashmir

  7. Map of Kashmir

  8. Event 2:Plebiscite Dillema(1949-1957) • United Nations Commissions for India and Pakistan resolution states that the accession of Jammu And Kashmir will be declared through a plebiscite. • Both countries agree, and withdraw their troops • Fail to arrive at a truce • 1956 – President of India declares the state of Jammu and Kashmir a part of India

  9. Event 3: Rise of Kashmiri Nationalism (1963- 1987) • Religious conflict • Holy Relic is missing from a Shrine in Kashmir • Pakistan invade Kashmir again • War results in another ceasefire • Pakistan funds Kashmiri rebels (Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Font) • Countless failed efforts from India and Pakistan to reach a truce. • By 1987 India gains even more of Kashmir

  10. Event 4:Kargil War (1999) • Kashmir goes through tons of different leaders • Very unstable • Pakistani soldiers invade onto Indian territory -> start of Kargil war • Seen as very dangerous because of Nuclear weapons • None were used • Results in 1000 soldiers and hundreds of civilians dead

  11. Influential People • Manmohan Singh- Prime Minister of India • Pervez Musharraf- Former president of Pakistan, ex-chief of Pakistan military

  12. Influential People • Yasin Malik- leader of one faction of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front • Sheikh Abdullah- Leader of the National Conference (Kashmir’s largest political party)