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Kashmir PowerPoint Presentation

Kashmir

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Kashmir

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  1. Kashmir Cultured Past, Tortured Present

  2. Geography

  3. Shrinagar = Shri + Nagar

  4. Kashmir Valley from the East

  5. Sri Nagar

  6. Saffron Saffron crocus is a perennial bulb. The flowers are pale lilac with narrow ribbed, slightly variegated leaves. The stigmas, the part used, are a bright orange-red

  7. Silk/HORSERoute Buddhism into Western China via Central Asia by 124 CE Kashmiris wealth in trade, culture instrumental to Silk Route trade Spices, Saffron created fortunes

  8. Material Wealth and Cultural wealth on a major trade route

  9. Vibrant Center of Ancient Indic Cultures Kashmir

  10. Hindu Traditions • Vedic traditions • Sun Temple, Martand • Kashmiri Shaivism • Center of Aesthetic theories

  11. Many Hindu Temple Ruins Avantipura Shiva Temple Payara Shiva Temple

  12. Kashmiri Shaivism Kashmir Shaivism proposes the theory of reflection (pratibimbavada). This theory explains that the universe is created in the same way that the image of an object, such as a house, can be reflected in a mirror. In the case of Shiva, however, there is no object such as the house which exists independently from the mirror of God Consciousness. The Kashmir Shaivism theory proclaims that nothing can exist outside of God Consciousness, because only God Consciousness exists. Therefore, the Shaiva explains, the only thing that exists is the house appearing in the mirror. There is no external object, no separate house, being reflected in the mirror. There is only the mirror of God Consciousness. What then causes the "reflection" to appear in the "mirror" of Shiva's awareness? To this question the Shaiva answers, it is svatantrya, the absolutely independent will of Lord Shiva that creates this whole universe in the mirror of his awareness by his absolutely independent will (svatantrya), his freedom.

  13. RASAAesthetic Cultivation as Salvation Practice The Sanskrit term for a deep feeling of basic aesthetic ideal is rasa. From the classical era onwards, and as definitively expounded by its chief articulator, the eleventh century Kashmiri scholar Abhinavagupta, Indian aesthetics has focused on the articulation of and evocation of the different rasas. The various medieval Sanskrit treatises highlight 10 rasa-s: erotic love (sringāra); heroism (vīra), disgust (bībhatsa), anger/fury (raudra), mirth (hāsya), terror (bhayānaka), compassion (karuna), wonder (adbhuta), peace (shanti), and paternal fondness (vātsalya). The Sanskrit artist working in the classical tradition wrote for an audience of highly refined and cultured individuals. In Indic aesthetic philosophy, great attention is paid to explaining the refined attitude of the “rasikas,” those who enjoy immersing themselves fully in a particular artistic experience.

  14. Center of Indian Medicine and Cultural Production

  15. Second Great Center of Indian Buddhism Kashmir At its peak, 400 Buddhist monasteries in 680 CE Center of philosophical vibrancy, ritual performance, artistic creation

  16. Ashokaruled 273-236 BCE

  17. East meets WEST, 300 BCE Alexander the Great

  18. Alexander defeated by Indian princesWeakened states in NW draw Mauryas of NE India to conquer and form alliances, creating the largest land empire in Indian history

  19. Ashoka’s Edicts on Pillars and Rocksacross Empire

  20. After Alexander was defeatedSome Greeks remainedin NW India….

  21. Greek Gymnasium in Afghanistan… ….papyrus manuscript in Greek style

  22. And some convert to Buddhism…called “Yavana”s for the next 1000 years Merchants who crossed India’s trade routes

  23. Gandhara

  24. Takht-I-Bahi

  25. KASHMIR: Center of Buddhist arts that influenced other areas of South Asia, including Nepal and Tibet

  26. Favorite Retreat of Mughal Rulers

  27. Favorite Retreat of Mughal Rulers

  28. Kashmiri Islam: Tolerant and drawn to Sufi mysticism

  29. Nishat Gardens Shahi Hamdan, Sufi Shrine

  30. Kashmir Under British Colonial Rule

  31. British Develop HimalayasHill stations for monsoon and heat seasons Western Himalayas: Shimla, Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Ooty, Jammu, Kashmir. Eastern Himalayas Darjeeling, Gangtok, Kalimpong, Kurseong, Mirik, Shillong, Imphal

  32. British Military Recruitment: Employment of “Hill Men” of India and Nepalese “Gurkhas”

  33. British cede Kashmir including Ladakh to the Hindu Dogras in 1846Hindu rule in Kashmir continued until Independence in 1947Ladakh part of India until today 1840-1: Kashmir vs. Tibet War Dogra invasion of Tibet repulsed; Tibetans defeated in Ladakh, territory remains with raja of Kashmir

  34. Maharaja of Kashmir, 1900

  35. Era of Indian IndependencePOST 1947