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Ecology of Coral Reefs. Spring 2012 Mariana Freitas. Introduction. Coral reefs are unique ocean ecosystems in that they have extremely high productivity and diversity. Also called tropical r ain forests of the o cean because of their diversity. Phylum Cnidaria.

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ecology of coral reefs

Ecology of Coral Reefs

Spring 2012

Mariana Freitas

introduction
Introduction
  • Coral reefs are unique ocean ecosystems in that they have extremely high productivity and diversity.
  • Also called tropical

rain forests of the

ocean because of

their diversity.

phylum cnidaria
Phylum Cnidaria
  • Corals are part of a group of small aquatic animals called “Cnidarians”. Other Cnidarians are sea anemones, hydroids and jellyfish.
  • Corals are a very diverse group and they are made up of many tiny organisms living together in a colony, and each individual organism is called a “polyp”.
importance of coral reefs
Importance of Coral Reefs
  • Home to numerous organisms
  • Protection and shelter
  • Increase the diversity
  • Food
  • Control of carbon dioxide
  • Barrier to coasts and shore
environmental conditions
Environmental Conditions
  • Certain conditions are necessary in order for a coral reef to form.
  • Temperature, light, salinity, sedimentation and wave energy all play a crucial role in reef development.
  • Reefs grow best in sunny, shallow, clear water.
environmental conditions1
Environmental Conditions
  • Temperature - minimum temperature of 18°C and a maximum temperature of 32°C
  • Shallow – bordering land at depths of less than 27 meters
  • Clear – sunlight necessary for zooxanthellae to perform photosynthesis
  • Salinity - require a salinity between 34 and 37 parts per 1000
types of reefs
Types of Reefs
  • There are three kinds of coral reef: the fringing reef, the barrier reef and the atoll.
  • Fringing reef – develop in shallow waters along the coast of tropical islands or continents. They grow right up to sea level.
types of reefs1
Types of Reefs
  • Barrier reef – separated from the shore by a wide, deep lagoon. They grow only when there has been a change of sea level on the adjacent coast.
types of reefs2
Types of Reefs
  • Atoll – circular reef surrounding a lagoon.
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Corals can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
  • Asexually reproduction may occur by budding or fragmentation.
  • Sexually reproduction occurs either by internal or external fertilization.
  • Some corals are hermaphroditic (both female and male reproductive cells).
zooxanthellae
Zooxanthellae
  • Symbiotic relationship with corals in which both organisms benefit from each other.
  • Zooxanthellae is an unicellular algae that lives in the gastrodermis of reef building corals.
  • The algae supplies oxygen and other nutrients that allow corals to grow and reproduce.
  • Corals give carbon dioxide and other substances that algae needs.
diseases
Diseases
  • Coral diseases can occur in response to biotic stresses or abioticstresses.
  • The rate of incidences has been increasing rapidly over the last 10 years.
  • Some of the causes include poor water quality (human pollution) and increase of surface temperatures.
diseases1
Diseases
  • Black-band disease (BBD) - blackish concentric or crescent-shaped band; cyanobacteria has been primarily associated with this disease and also sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.
diseases2
Diseases
  • White band disease (WBD) – complete degradation of coral tissue in Caribbean acroporid corals. Usually proceeds from the base of colony to branch tips.
diseases3
Diseases
  • White plague – similar to WBD; sharp line between apparently healthy coral tissue and freshly exposed coral skeleton.
diseases4
Diseases
  • White pox – white circular lesions; tissue degradation occurs rapidly.
  • Yellow band - large rings or patches of bleachedyellow tissue; loss of tissue is slow.
  • Dark spots – dark, brown or purple pigmented areas; tissue loss is minimal.
threats and destruction
Threats and Destruction
  • Both natural and human related causes.
  • 10% of the world’s coral reefs have already been destroyed.
  • Scientists predict that in the next 20-40 years, 70% of the coral reefs will be lost, if no changes are made by human population.
threats and destruction1
Threats and Destruction
  • Global warming
  • Overfishing
  • Tourism
  • Water contamination
  • Increase CO2
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Coral reef ecosystems are one of the most valuable ecosystems on Earth.
  • They are incredibly diverse, very productive, but also extremely fragile.
  • They provide food, protection of coasts, and shelter to many marine organisms.
  • Serious threats include climate change, fishing and pollution.
references
References
  • http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral5.htm
  • http://plaza.ufl.edu/bettie/coralreef.html
  • http://coris.noaa.gov/about/diseases/
  • Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life, Ninth Edition by John F. Morrissey and James L. Sumich
  • Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, Sixth Edition by Charles J. Krebs
  • Marine Ecology: concepts and applications, by Martin Speight and Peter Henderson
  • Marine Ecology, Oxford by Sean D. Connell and Bronwyn M. Gillanders
  • Marine Community Ecology, First Edition by Mark D. Bertness, Steven D. Gaines, Mark E. Hay