Coral Reefs An MST Inquiry unit Educ 7204T Dr. O’connor-petruso By Danielle Noto, Jennifer charters, jennifer sternberg, and Leann anderson
Standards • Lessons correspond with New York City 4th grade curriculum standards based on the following subjects: • Science – New York City’s Science Scope and Sequence • Math- NCTM • Technology – ISTE • This unity focuses on the 4th grade science curricula
Coral Reefs: Graphic organizer The Study of Coral Reefs
The Study of Coral Reefs: Coral Anatomy, Coral Reef Ecosystem, Environmental and Human Impact on Coral Restoration and Protection. Key Idea 3 Individual Organisms and Species change over time. Key Idea 6 Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment Key Idea 5 Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life. Key Idea 3 Individual Organisms and species change over time: 3.1a Each animal has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction 3.1b Each plant has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction 3.1c In order to survive in their environment, plants and animals must be adapted to that environment. Key Idea 5 Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life. 5.1b An organism's external physical features can enable it to carry out life functions in its particular environment. 5.2a Plants respond to changes in their environment. 5.2g The health, growth, and development of organisms are affected by environmental conditions ... Key Idea 6 Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment 6.1b All animals depend on plants. Some other animals (predators) eat other animals (prey). 6.1e An organism's pattern of behavior is related to the nature of that organism's environment... 6.1f When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.
Lesson overview • Lesson #1: Introduction to Coral Reefs - “What is a Coral Reef” • Lesson #2: Types Of Coral& Coral Polyps– “What does a coral look like” • Lesson #3: The Ecosystem - “What are the conditions for survival” • Lesson #4: Why are Coral Reefs dying? - “Signs, Causes, solution…” • Lesson #5: Great Barrier Reef – “How and When were they formed” • Lesson #6: How can a “geographic focus” sharpen our insights about a conservation issue.
Three Lessons • The Three Lessons that are going to be presented through this presentation are lessons 1, 2, and 6. • Lesson 1 is the introduction of Coral Reefs • Lesson 2 is the types of Coral Reefs looking at Coral Reef anatomy • Lesson 6 is How can a “geographic focus” sharpen our insights about a conservation issue
Objectives for lessons 1, 2 and • Lesson 1’s Objectives: • To describe in basic terms, the process by which a coral reef is formed. • To identify the place in which coral reefs belong and in which they are found. • To explain and illustrate where coral reefs are found and what they look like. • To construct their own coral reef. • To evaluate their show box coral reef. • Lesson 2’s Objectives: • To characterize the parts of a coral polyp. • To construct an edible coral polyp model. • To evaluate their individual polyps through the study of real polyps. • To design an edible polyp that shows how they feed independently in a coral colony. • Lesson 6‘s Objectives: • To explore the concept of ecotourism. • To gather information about the Great Barrier Reef, the World’s largest reef • To create maps of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. • To work in teams to create a presentation about ecotourism. • To present their project and ideas about ecotourism to the class.
Lesson #1: Introduction to coral reefs • What is a Coral Reef? • Objectives: • To describe in basic terms, the process by which a coral reef is formed. • To identify the place in which coral reefs belong and in which they are found. • To explain and illustrate where coral reefs are found and what they look like. • To construct their own coral reef. • To evaluate their show box coral reef.
Lesson 1: standards • NAEP • Process Skills • S5c: Use evidence from reliable sources to construct explanations • S5d: Evaluates different points of view using relevant experiences, and evaluates the accuracy, • design, and outcomes of investigations. • S5f: Works individually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas. • NAEP Science Content Standard: • L4.1: Organisms need food, water and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment • in which they can live. • L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways including providing food and • shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs • are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.
Lesson 1: standards (continued) ISTE NETs Standards for Literate Students: Creativity and Innovation - Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Communication and Collaboration - Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Research and Information Fluency - Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. NCTM Math Skills: Process Standards: Representation: Use mathematical language and measurement tools to correctly express mathematical ideas precisely. Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems Content Standards: Represent data using line plots, Collect data using observations, surveys, and experiments.
Lesson 1 procedure • Lesson 1 will be conducted over three science periods. For this presentation, we will be focusing on day 1. Teach: Day One 1- Clips will be shown to the students to start off the new unit on coral reefs. 2- Teacher will ask a few close ended questions after the clip has been shown. What animals did you see in the movie? Answer: clown fish, stingrays, sea horse Did you see any coral reefs? What did they look like and who lived near them? Answer: Yes. The reefs were colorful, big, sharp and soft. All the sea animals lived near them. 3- New vocabulary words will be introduced to students. Class will be told to copy the words into their science notebooks. a) Habitat: the natural environment of a plant or animal. b) Coral Reefs: A reef composed mainly of coral and other organic matter of which parts have solidified into limestone. c) Organisms: any animal or plant. d) Coral: the hard, variously colored, calcareous skeleton secreted by certain marine polyps.
Lesson 1 procedure (continued) • 4- Have the students look over and fill out the handout: Can you identify these fish from the case of Finding Nemo. Have the students fill it in groups of four students. The groups should be cooperative heterogeneous groups picked by the teacher. • 5- Give the students ten minutes to fill it out and discuss the results. • 6- As a class, gather information on students favorite coral reef animals. Use tally marks to record responses and graph the results.
Questions: Questions: Closed-Ended Questions: What animals can you name that you saw in the clip of Finding Nemo? Answer: clown fish, stingrays, sea horse Did you see any coral reefs? What did they look like and who lived near them? Answer: Yes. The reefs were colorful, big, sharp and soft. All the sea animals lived near them. Open-Ended Questions: How could we create a coral reef without being in the ocean? If corals grow in the warmer waters of the ocean, would a diver have to swim very deep to observe the animals? Explain. What did you place in your underwater scene? Why did you choose these objects and organisms?
What is your favorite coral reef animal graph Fill in the name of the coral reef animals on top and then graph your findings
Lesson 1 Web 2.0 tool: • Coral Reef Movie - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QY8iaJq28-U&feature=related • Watching the movie finding Nemo
Lesson 1 assessment • The assessment will be assessed in a variety of ways, both formally and informally. Student will be asked questions, create projects, and students will be assessed on their completion of their coral’s comfort activity through a rubric Students will also be assessed by their Coral’s Comfort zone activity and the shoebox Coral reef activity created in class.
Corals’ comfort zone activity Problem: Coral reefs are found in warmer water. (There are corals that grow in deep seas that are soft corals and not reefs.) By creating a model of ocean water, we will observe what happens when cold and warm salt water is poured into the same container. Then, we can conclude in what layer of the ocean corals thrive. Hypothesis: I predict that ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________because____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Materials 2 L (64oz.) glass jar or glass bowl 2 L (8 c.) warm water 75 mL (1/3 c.) salt Blue food coloring Measuring cup Spoon Mixing bowl Paper cup Pencil or pen with point Refrigerator or freezer
Corals’ comfort zone activity (continued) • Procedure • Pour 1.5 L (6 c.) of warm water into the large glass jar. Add the salt and stir until it is completely dissolved. Stick your finger in and take a taste. This is about the amount of salt in the ocean water. • Measure 250 mL (1 c.) of the saltwater and pour it into the mixing bowl. Add drops of blue food coloring until the water is dark blue. Put the bowl in the refrigerator or freezer until the water is cold. • Use the point of the pencil or pen to poke a hole into the bottom of the paper cup and rest the cup on the rim of the jar. The bottom of the cup should be underwater. (If you’re using a bowl, a partner will need to hold the cup over the water.) • When the blue water in the refrigerator is cold, pour it very slowly into the cup and observe.
Lesson 2: Types of Coral reefs • What does a coral reef look like? • Objectives: • To characterize the parts of a coral polyp • To construct an edible coral polyp model • To evaluate their individual polyps through the study of real polyps • To design an edible polyp that shows how they feed independently in a coral colony.
Lesson 2: standards NCTM Math Skills: Process Standards: Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems Content Standards: Problem Solving: Grades 3-5 Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them Collect data using observations, surveys, and experiments NAEP Science Content Standards Scientific Inquiry: S4.1 Design and critique aspects of scientific investigations (e.g., involvement of control groups, adequacy of sample) S4.3 Identify patterns in data and/or relate patterns in data to theoretical models; S4.4 Use empirical evidence to validate or criticize conclusions about explanations and predictions
Lesson 2: standards (continued) Technology: T4.3 Apply science principles or data to anticipate effects of technological design Interdependence: From the interdependence of organisms L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms. L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations. ISTE NETs Standards for Literate Students: Creativity and Innovation - Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students: Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes. Create original works as a means of personal or group expression
Lesson 2: Procedure • Have the students fill out a KWL chart to establish what they know, what they want to learn and what they have learned already about coral and polyps. • Have students place what they know about the coral and polyps in the first column, and what they would want to learn in the second column. The third column, what I have learned will be filled out at the end of the unit study of Coral Reefs. • Hand out copies of The Incredible Coral Reef by Toni Albert. • Read the hand out with the class. Ask questions in reference to the handout. • What is coral? • What is a polyp? • How is a coral polyp formed? • What are some threats to the coral polyps?
Lesson 2: Procedure (Continued) • Have the students go on the Website: http://www.usm.edu/marineeducation/old/coralreef/03.pdf • On this website the children will research polyps and how their structures are formed. • Show students pictures of coral polyps. Have them come to the board and label the pictures on an overhead or smart board. • Have the students create their own edible coral polyp. This will help the students learn the part of the coral polyp while having fun doing so. As a follow as time allows have the students complete the handout on the Great Barrier Reef. This should be completed for homework if not in class.
Lesson 2: Filamentality and Web 2.0 tool • Teacher will log onto the filamentality website and visit http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/for_fun/Makeanediblecoralreef.pdf • Students will visit the http://whc.unesco.orgwebsite to watch and witness the importance of coral reefs. • Students will visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/143896main_heron_island_lg.jpgand http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/00/earthpulse/reef/reef1_flash-feature.html, and see different satellite images of the great barrier reef.
Lesson 2: assessment • The assessment will be given in many different ways: • Students will be assessed on their completion of the polyp essay and it will be based on a rubric. • Students will also be assessed on the edible coral polyp activity.
Lesson 2: assessment activity Class Activity Procedure: You may want to prepare a model colony to show your students before they make their own. 1. Group the students into pairs. 2. Give each pair of students a paper plate. The plate represents the limestone base to which the coral is attached. 3. Give each student a marshmallow on a toothpick and six strips of licorice. The marshmallow represents the polyp body and the licorice represents the tentacles. 4. Give each pair one ounce of melted candy coating from the heat source in a shallow container (the candy represents the limestone skeleton). 5. Have the students work together. Roll the sides of the marshmallow in the melted candy coating and stand the marshmallows on a paper plate. If the marshmallows are placed close enough together, they will attach to each other and resemble a coral colony. 6. Have the students insert six licorice strips around the top of the marshmallow. Children may want to use their toothpicks to help them poke the holes. [Be careful to remove all toothpicks!] 7. Slightly dampen the marshmallows with water and sprinkle it with the sprinkles. The sprinkles represent the endosymbiosis. Use only one color per polyp. 8. Discuss the edible polyp model. Explain what the marshmallow, the candy, they licorice and the sprinkles, and the plate represent. 9. Now have the students pretend that they are parrot fish or crown of thorn sea stars and eat their polyps
Edible Coral Polyp Objective: Students will review the parts of a coral polyp by building an edible coral polyp model. Materials: White baking chocolate, candiquik mix, or other hard candy coating (½ ounce for each child) One marshmallow for each student (substitute: section of banana or strawberry) Toothpicks Red licorice (regular or whip): six two-inch strips for each child. If regular licorice is used, cut the Pieces into small, thin strips. Blue, red or green sprinkles Heat source (microwave or hot plate) for melting candy coating only Pan for candy coating Paper plates
Edible Coral Polyp (continued) • Presentation: • You may want to prepare a model colony to show your students before they make their own. • 1. Group the students into pairs. • 2. Give each pair of students a paper plate. The plate represents the limestone base to which the • coral is attached. • 3. Give each student a marshmallow on a toothpick and six strips of licorice. The marshmallow • represents the polyp body and the licorice represents the tentacles. • 4. Give each pair one ounce of melted candy coating from the heat source in a shallow container (the • candy represents the limestone skeleton). • 5. Have the students work together. Roll the sides of the marshmallow in the melted candy coating • and stand the marshmallows on a paper plate. If the marshmallows are placed close enough • together, they will attach to each other and resemble a coral colony. • 6. Have the students insert six licorice strips around the top of the marshmallow. Children may want to • use their toothpicks to help them poke the holes. [Be careful to remove all toothpicks!] • 7. Slightly dampen the marshmallows with water and sprinkle it with the sprinkles. The sprinkles represent the endosymbiosis. Use only one color per polyp. • 8. Discuss the edible polyp model. Explain what the marshmallow, the candy, they licorice and the sprinkles, and the plate represent. • 9. Now have the students pretend that they are parrot fish or crown of thorn sea stars and eat their polyps. • Yummy!
Lesson 6: Great Barrier Reef • How can a “geographic focus” sharpen our insights about a conservation issue • Objectives: • To explore the concept of ecotourism. • To gather information about the Great Barrier Reef, the World’s largest reef • To create maps of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. • To work in teams to create a presentation about ecotourism. • To present their project and ideas about ecotourism to the class
Lesson 6: standards • NAEP Process Skills • Scientific Inquiry: • S4.4 – Sue empirical evidence to validate or criticize conclusions about explanations and predictions • Technology: • T4.1: Propose or critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints. • Life Science: • L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live. • The ISTE NETS and Performance Indicators for Students • 1. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students: • a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes. • d. create original works as a means of personal or group expression
Lesson 6: standards (continued) • . Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students: • d. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems. • 4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students: • b. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project. • 6. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations. Students: • a. understand and use technology systems. • Connections to the National Geography Standards: • Standard 1: "How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective" Standard 8: "The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface" Standard 14: "How human actions modify the physical environment"
Lesson 6: procedure • Two lesson periods • For this lesson, teacher divides the class into groups of three.(Each team of students will create a presentation to convince the Australian government they are the best people to hire to give ecotourism.) • Send the teams to the Ecotourism Explorer Web site (http://www.ecotourism.org/site/c.orLQKXPCLmF/b.4832143/k.CF7C/The_International_Ecotourism_Society__Uniting_Conservation_Communities_and_Sustainable_Travel.htm ) and ask them to note how ecotourism differs from standard tours. • After the students are in their groups, ask them to brainstorm on the previous lessons or they can gather information from the filamentality website to answer questions such as the following: • What is a coral reef? • What is the Great Barrier Reef? • Why is the coral of the Great Barrier Reef important? • What are some of the threats to the health of the reef? • What do the terms "preservation," "conservation," and "restoration" mean? • How might these terms apply to the Great Barrier Reef of Australia?
Lesson 6: procedure (continued) • Remind Students that: The Great Barrier Reef lies off the east coast of Australia. It is the world's largest coral reef. Coral reefs have been called the "tropical rain forests of the ocean." Designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a World Heritage Area, the Great Barrier Reef is a popular tourist site, as well as an important environmental resource. • Students must also be reminded that to get the job as ecotour guides, teams will need to know a lot about the reef, and about how to visit it in an environmentally sound way. They can start their research at the following Web sites: They can start their research at the following Web site: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/, and also on the filamentality website. • Remind students to take notes, because they will be putting together a presentation to promote their ecotourism venture. • First, students will gather information about the Great Coral Reef, keeping in mind points they may want to address in their presentations. • Give students the freedom to create a presentation they wish. • Here are some suggestions on what they might want to include in their presentations: • A map of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. • A description of the Great Barrier reef. • Why the Great Barrier reef is important? • Tips for responsible techniques and practices for marine ecotourism.
Lesson 6: procedure (continued) • In closing, have a brief class discussion about what students have learned about ecotourism. How have their ideas about ecotourism changed since the beginning of the lesson? How do they feel about people who travel without regard to the damage they might be doing to fragile ecological systems such as the Great Barrier Reef? • Teams should prepare to pitch their ideas for ecotourism at the Great Barrier Reef to the Australian government (their classmates). Encourage them to have fun—choose an Australian name for their "company," dress like a tour guide, use props, and affect an Australian accent. • Classmates will pretend to be Australian government officials. • Each team should limit its presentation to 5 to 10 minutes. Both team members should participate in the presentation.
Lesson 6: web 2.0 tool • Ecotourism Explorer Website • (http://www.ecotourism.org/site/c.orLQKXPCLmF/b.4832143/k.CF7C/The_International_Ecotourism_Society__Uniting_Conservation_Communities_and_Sustainable_Travel.htm)
Lesson 6: assessment • The assessment will be given in many different ways: • Students will be assessed on their completion of their presentations and this will be done both formally through a rubric and informally through class discussion
Coral Reef Website Scavenger Hunt • Go to the web site: http://www.mbgnet.net/ • You will use the information found at various places on this site to answer the questions below. In some cases you will have to use your own knowledge along with information on the site to answer the question. Make sure that you read the questions carefully and that you verify your answers. • 1. How many different biomes and ecosystems are there on our planet? • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 2. Name the biomes: • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 3. Name the fresh water ecosystems: • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 4. Name the marine ecosystems: • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 5. Which biome/ecosystem do you live in? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 6. In which biome/ecosystem would you find a coral reef? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________
Scavenger Hunt (continued) • Click on the biome tab where you would find the coral reef. • Answer these questions: • 1. How long would it take for a coral reef to grow 5 inches? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 2. Draw a line that is 5 inches in height using your ruler.
Scavenger Hunt Continued • . Name one way that humans can be a threat to the coral reef. • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 4. What is the name of the animal that makes up the coral? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 5. What is the common name for calcium carbonate? Where might you find it in your everyday life? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 6. Why are many small tropical fish found in the coral reef? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 7. What is the largest coral reef named and where is it located? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 8. Name 2 other places where a coral reef may be found. • __________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 9. Name tropical ocean animals for each category: • a) 2 fish:__________________________________________ • b) 1 bird:__________________________________________ • c) 1 reptile:________________________________________ • d) 1 mammal:_______________________________________ • e) 1 invertebrate:____________________________________ • 10. Why does the Stonefish look the way it does? • __________________________________________________________________________________________________
Congratulations………. • You have earned your Master Oceanographer’s Degree!! • Coral Reef Scavenger Hunt • Now that you have become an informed oceanographer, you are asked to write an entry for a log. Remember to include the date of your entry, the location of where you are and provide 3 pieces of information about your day’s adventure in your mini-sub. Use the information from the web site, the scavenger hunt and our novel Dolphins at Daybreak to help you. • ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________