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Coral reefs. Coral reefs. One of the most biological diverse and productive ecosystem Found in warm, clear and shallow tropical oceans On CaCO 3 substrate deposited by reef building corals (50% of all Ca deposit in the sea) and other calcified organisms. Provide shelters and food to fish .

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coral reefs2
Coral reefs
  • One of the most biological diverse and productive ecosystem
  • Found in warm, clear and shallow tropical oceans
  • On CaCO3 substrate deposited by reef building corals (50% of all Ca deposit in the sea) and other calcified organisms.
  • Provide shelters and food to fish
slide6

Figure 4. Analysis of factors influencing biodiversity of coral reefs, illustrated by the percent variation in taxonomic composition of fish and coral assemblages explained by habitat area, longitude, and latitude. (Bellwood & Hugh 2001, Science 292: 1532-1535)

types of reefs fringe barrier atolls
Types of reefs: fringe, barrier, atolls

Atolls “final stage of tropical island development” (Charles Darwin 1942, Structure and Development of Coral Reefs”)

brain corals
Brain corals

With extended polyps

mutualism between clown fish and sea anemone
Mutualism between clown fish and sea anemone
  • Clown fish is coated with the same mucous as anemone.
  • Fish brings food.
  • Anemone protect fish.
why is diversity so high in coral reefs and rain forest
Why is diversity so high in coral reefs and rain forest?
  • On nutrient poor water
  • High level of mutualism and symbiosis
  • High productivity and high rates of nutrient cycling
  • Finely divided niches
  • Control by herbivores and competitions?
limestone outcrops in s florida 10 000 yr old land rich in endemic ca loving herbaceous plants
Limestone outcrops in S. Florida: >10,000 yr old land rich in endemic Ca-loving herbaceous plants
  • Miami rock ridge & upper keys: Oolitic limestone, precipitated in sallow sea supersaturated with CaCO3
  • Lower keys: coral origin
florida marsh distribution
Florida marsh distribution
  • North: sink hole origin and untable.
  • Kissimmee river basin: where the land sagged slightly from dissolution of underlying limestone.
  • Lake Okeechobee: water dammed by the sedimentation in the southern rim.
  • Northern Everglades: river of grass, following the gradual elevational gradient to SW.
  • Southern Everglades: freshwater lens pushed up by the saltwater underneath.
tropical estuary
Tropical estuary:
  • Sea grass beds
  • Mangroves, mudflat, marshes
  • Higher species diversity of mangroves and seagrass species in Asia-Australia (eastern group) than in America (western group).
seagrasses of w australia
Seagrasses of W. Australia

Posidonia seagrass meadow in W. Australia

seagrasses flowering plants that returned to the sea
Seagrasses: flowering plants that returned to the sea
  • Origin: 100 m.y. BP., in Tethys Sea
  • 2 families: Potamogetonaceae & Hydrocharitaceae (NOT in grass family)
  • 58 species, 12 genera, mostly in tropical Asia-Australia.
  • Found mostly in shallow coastal water, salt marshes, and estuary.
slide26

Dinosaurs dominant, mammals evolving as subdominant.Angiosperm is rapidly increasing dominance, replacing ferns and gymnosperms. But, no tropical rain forest dominated by tall angiosperm trees yet.

mangroves
Mangroves
  • 75% of tropical coast lines (water temp above 24 C)
  • 40 spp. in Eastern group, 8 spp in Western group. Convergent evolution in different families.
  • 3 spp. in Florida (red, black, and white)
  • Highly productive
  • Important habitat for costal animals
mangrove species in indonesia fao world atlas of mangroves
Mangrove species in Indonesia (FAO World Atlas of Mangroves)

Acanthus ebracteatus

Acanthus ilicifolius

Acrostichumaureum

Acrostichumspeciosum

Aegialitisannulata

Aegicerascorniculatum

Aegicerasfloridum

Avicennia alba

Avicennia marina

Avicenniaofficinalis

Avicenniarumphiana

Bruguieracylindrica

Bruguieraexaristata

Bruguieragymnorrhiza

Bruguierahainesii

Bruguieraparviflora

Bruguierasexangula

Camptostemonphilippinensis

Camptostemonschultzii

Ceriopsdecandra

Ceriopstagal

Excoecariaagallocha

Excoecariaindica

Heritieraglobosa

Heritieralittoralis

Kandeliacandel

Lumnitzeralittorea

Lumnitzeraracemosa

Nypafruticans

Osborniaoctodonta

Pemphisacidula

Rhizophoraapiculata

Rhizophoramucronata

Rhizophorastylosa

Rhizophoraxlamarckii

Scyphiphorahyrophyllacea

Sonneratia alba

Sonneratiacaseolaris

Sonneratiaovata

Sonneratiaxgulngai

Sonneratiaxurama

Xylocarpusgranatum

Xylocarpusmekongensis

taller species rich mangroves in australia
Taller & species rich mangroves in Australia

Rhizophora & Soneratia in Darwin Harbor, AU

new world mangroves
New World mangroves

Red = Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae)

Black = Avicinia germinans (Rhizophoraceae)

White = Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)

(http://www.floridaoceanographic.org/environ/mangrove1.htm)

Often accompanied by:

Conocarpus electus (Combretaceae)

Pelliciera rhizophorae (Pellicieraceae)

Acrostricum spp. (ferns)

mangroves in florida
Mangroves in Florida

Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle)

Black mangrove (Avicenia germinans)

mangroves in florida34
Mangroves in Florida

White mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa)

Acrostichum spp. (mangrove ferns)

mangrove zonation florida
Mangrove zonation: Florida

Salt excluder

Salt excreters

physiological adaptation of mangroves
Physiological adaptation of mangroves
  • Salt management:
    • exclude (Rhisophora)
    • excrete (from salt glands in leaves, Avicinnia, Laguncularia)
    • tolerate (accumulate in vacuoles – not in FL)
  • Thick cuticles on leaves to tolerate desiccation
  • High tannin to prevent herbivory
  • Pneumatophores and lenticels to send oxygen to roots
not all mangroves have true vivipary
Not all mangroves have (true) vivipary.

Black mangrove

(cryptovivipary)

Red mangroves

zonation mechanisms
Zonation mechanisms
  • Salt tolerance (frequency and duration of inundation, maximum salt concentration)
  • Ocean current’s force (especially during storms)
  • Competition
  • Seedling establishment
mangroves in mexico
Mangroves in Mexico

Destruction of mangroves for shrimp farming