Chapter 25 Notes Human Geography of South Asia: A Region of Contrasts
Section 1: India • India- ancient culture, over 4,000 years old • Blending of many different cultures & traditions • Many invaders & empires came to power in the region
East India Company Flag Section 1: India • By the 1500’s Europeans were trading with India for spices & cloth. • Great Britain began to dominate this trade, through its company the British East India Company.
Section 1: India • By 1857 Great Britain controlled all of India. • This period is known as the Raj (lasted for 90 years)
Section 1: India • Eventually Indians began to resist the British occupation. (struggle for independence, 1916-1945) • They were led by Mohandas Gandhi • Advocate of mass nonviolent resistance- • Protest movement that does not use violence to achieve its goals
Section 1: India • Gandhi cont.- • Advocated an end to the Caste system • British educated lawyer • Made own clothes (why?) • Imprisoned many times • Commonly used hunger fasts as a resistance tool • Forced the British from India in August, 1947 • Inspiration for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s tactics in the Civil Rights movement
Republic of India • 28 states and 7 union territories • State- local government • Union Territory- run directly by national government
Section 1: India • India is the world’s largest democracy • ͌ 1.1 billion people • Strongly Hindu country but • Over 150 million Muslims • Source of conflict? One of the new 7 wonders of the world- Taj Mahal
Section 1: India • Land Reform- more balanced distribution of land among farmers • Proposal to redistribute land. • 1990s 25% of farmland was in the hands of powerful 5% of farm families
Section 1: India • Green Revolution- increasing of crop yields by introducing higher-yielding grain varieties & teaching better farming techniques to farmers. • Introduced in late 1960’s & early 1970’s • Dramatically improved the amount of food available for the poor.
Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world. Section 1: India • Modern Life- • Most marriages are arranged • Divorce is rare • Very common for extended family to all live under one roof. • Most are vegetarians • Has largest film industry in the world. • Public affection is discouraged Aishwarya Rai
Section 1: India • Languages of India • 18 major languages • More than 1,000 are spoken • English is common in business areas. • Hindi is the official language
Section 1: India • Hinduism • 80% of population • Reincarnation • Karma- moral consequences of a person’s actions (help to determine how a person is reincarnated)
Section 1: India • Caste system- system of social classes • Born into a specific caste • Only marry within your caste • Only move to a different caste through reincarnation
Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh • Indus Valley Civilization- largest of the world’s first civilizations • Began around 2500 B.C. • Fell around 1500 B.C. • Aryans invaded soon after (from north of Iran) • Mauryan, Gupta, Mughal empire rule territory later on
PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) India WestPakistan EastPakistan • Independence & Division- • Britain divided up India into a Hindu nation (India) and a Muslim nation (East & West Pakistan)
Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh • Partition- division of British India • Led to much violence between Hindu’s & Muslims • 1 million died • 10 million moved to new areas • By 1971 a civil war broke out and the new nation of Bangladesh was formed.
Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh • Kashmir- small territory in northern India that both Pakistan & India claim as there own • Muslim population but had Hindu Maharaja at time of partition • Joined India • 3 Wars over the territory • Both sides have nuclear weapons
Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh • Microcredit- very small loans that are made available to entrepreneurs • Entrepreneur- people who start & build a business • Effective way of getting poor workers out of poverty
Section 2: Pakistan & Bangladesh • Pakistan & Bangladesh- most are Muslim • Key parts of Muslim Mughal Empire • Ramadan- month-long period of fasting from sunrise to sunset.
Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan • Nepal & Bhutan- • Geographically isolated, because of their mountainous terrain • Difficult to conquer &/or visit in its history
Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan • Nepal & Bhutan • Both are Constitutional Monarchies- • Kingdom in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitution • Both are very poor & have limited resources
Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan • Sherpas- people of Nepal of Tibetan ancestry • Renowned mtn. climbers & pack carriers
Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan • Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)- born on the borders of Nepal & India in the 6th century • Founder of Buddhism
Section 3: Nepal & Bhutan • Buddhists in Bhutan use Mandalas- • Geometric designs that are symbols of the universe & aid in meditation.
Section 4: Sri Lanka & the Maldives • Sinhalese- Buddhist people from India that settled in Sri Lanka (majority) • Tamils- Dravidian Hindu people from southern India that settled in Sri Lanka (minority) • Civil War has been taking place on & off since the 1980’s between these groups
Section 4: Sri Lanka & the Maldives • The Maldives- • Population of only about 300,000 on over 1200 islands • Ruled by Sultans- Muslim Rulers