The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 Causes Nationalism To gain power, European nations compete for colonies and trade. Imperialism Economic Competition Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized. Demand for raw materials and new markets spurs a search for colonies. Missionary Spirit Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world.
The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 Effects Colonization Europeans control land and people in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Imperialism Colonial Economics Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized. Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies. Christianization Christianity is spread to Africa, India, and Asia.
Berlin Conference (1884): European countries decided they could claim African colonies just by setting up government offices in African territory. This set off a Great Scramble as Europeans rushed to colonize Africa.
I. The Scramble for Africa • Africa Before European Dominion • Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups • Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or Christianity • Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages • Africans controlled their own trade networks • Europeans only had contact on African coasts
The Scramble for Africa • Nations compete for overseas empires • Europeans wanted more land • Contained large amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber • Africa was a mystery to many • Europeans who penetrated Africa were: • Explorers – seeking wealth and notoriety • Missionaries – trying to convert Africans to Christianity • Humanitarians – “westernize” the “savages”
The Scramble for Africa • Forces Driving Imperialism • Belief in European superiority • Racism • Social Darwinism • Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa • European technological superiority • Europeans had means to control • New medicines prevent diseases
Ideology: Nationalism and Social Darwinism • "White Man's Burden": racist patronizing that preached that the “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” peoples in other parts of the world - Poem by Rudyard Kipling
Germany and Russia especially used imperialistic drives to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home and to create a false sense of national unity.